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C-182 and 182RG
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...Cautions; ...Cessna 111GG C-182P; ...C-182RG Transition; ...Adequate Checkout; ...Complex/High Performance; C-182 Differences; Fuel Problems of Cessnas; ...Landing the High Performance Aircraft; ...High Performance Aircraft Descent; ...C-182's Engine; Aircraft Basic Information Sheet; ...Calibrated and Indicated Airspeeds; Complex Aircraft Advice; ..Checkout in 61X; ...7561X; Flaps; Fuel tanks; Oil; Gear Warning; Retractable Landing Gear; Gear-up Landings; ...The Standby Vacuum System in 61X; ...Constant Speed Propeller; ...Changing Power of Constant Speed Operations; ...Over-Square Operations; ...C-182 Accidents; ,,,Comparing Short Field Landings; ...New to the Old C-182; ...Emergency Procedures; ...Flight Transitions Chart; ...Checkout Form; ...IFR Checklist; ... Four C-182 checklists; Gumps Check; ...C111GG Autopilot Failure Modes; 111GG Numbers; Cessna vs Piper; ...Aircraft Proficiency Checkout; ...C-182 Transition; ...
The airplane sustained substantial damage. The private pilot reported minor injuries. The pilot stated he started his takeoff roll on the west runway, and just before rotation his seat slid backwards. The pilot reported that he "lost directional control" of the airplane, and the airplane subsequently collided with an embankment.
NOTE FROM JF: The possibility of seat slippage on Cessna single engine aircraft built prior to 1996 is well known. Service bulletins and A.D.s have been written to focus attention on seeing that the seat pins engage in the seat tracks properly. Cessna developed a secondary seat stop kit that for many years was free if the owner would pay the labor for the installation at a Cessna Service Center. Only about 20 percent of owners took advantage of Cessna's offer. One of the drawbacks to the kit was that it was not compatible with the "Flite Files" people like to have between the two front seats.
It should be second nature to anyone operating a Cessna that when they pull the seat into position they wiggle their butt to try and dislodge the seat and to be sure that the seat is latched. I call this "Cessna Fanny". If you don't have some form of secondary seat latching system then placing a flight bag or suitcase behind the pilot's seat to prevent the seat from sliding fully aft is a good idea.
On December 15, 2003, at 1300 Pacific standard time, a Cessna 182P collided with terrain after experiencing a loss of engine power in the takeoff initial climb from the Watsonville Airport, Watsonville, California. The private pilot and single passenger were seriously injured, and the airplane was destroyed. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed. The local area personal flight was originating at the time of the accident witnesses told the Safety Board investigator on scene that the airplane took off and climbed to about 200 feet when they heard the
engine make two popping sounds and abruptly quit. They observed the plane make a left 180-degree descending turn, lower the flaps, level off, and collide with the ground. Witnesses helped extract the pilot and his passenger. There was no fire.
Water was found in fluid samples taken from the airplane's right fuel tank sump drain, the gascolator, and the carburetor.
NOTE FROM JF: I spoke with the NTSB Accident Investigator on this one to confirm what I already knew had to be. Yes, the aircraft still had the...can we say the two words together boys and girls...KILLER CAPS! For those of you new to 182s, back in the early 80s it was discovered that a large number of 182 fuel contamination accidents were being caused by water leaking into the fuel tanks past the flush style fuel caps with the pull up handles. This water would then "hide" behind wrinkles in the fuel bladders on the pre 1979 182s and other bladder equipped Cessnas and not make its way to the sump. The key failure point in this chain was the flush style fuel cap. Because it sat in a well if either of the two seals did not seal perfectly water would enter the tank. Cessna came up with kits to deal with the wrinkles and replace the flush style caps with what we call "Umbrella Caps" because they sit on a raised lip.
The FAA issued AD 84-10-01 to address the wrinkle issue but, surprising to me, did not mandate the replacement of the fuel cap. Because we clearly saw the improvement to safety from changing the caps, CPA staff has been on a crusade for years to get everyone with the flush fuel caps to replace them. To emphasis the
importance, I have referred to the flush caps as "Killer Caps". That has not made the Cessna factory very happy but to their credit they recognized my intent and did not send me nasty lawyer letters. The campaign has been very successful and I estimate that less than ten percent of the aircraft that originally had the flush fuel caps still
do. Unfortunately the owner of the aircraft above either did not get the word or did not heed it.
I believe this accident will cause the NTSB to issue a recommendation that the FAA mandate the replacement of the flush style fuel caps and I also believe that is exactly what the FAA will do. Because most owners have already replaced the caps this should not have a big impact on the fleet. For those who have not replaced the flush style fuel caps you can expect to pay around $800 to have it done. The kit from Cessna is about $660 and the labor to install is about 2.5 man-hours. Unfortunately one of the other approved cap kits, Monarch, is not
John Frank, CPA Tech Rep
Cessna 111GG C-182P
Fuel 85 gallons with 79 useable. 521.4 # vs 747# a difference of 47 pounds.
Oil 12 quarts
Empty weight 1881.1 Arm 37.72 Moment 70,455.30
(Empty weight of 1833.7 gives useful load of 1116.3 -474 # fuel gives cabin load of 642.3 gives three standard people and a luggage of 132.3 #)
Empty weight procedure C-182 P 1986
Remove drain plugs from fuel tanks and oil sump and empty contents.
This means that oil and unusable fuel becomes part of useful load that requires special off-loading
if ever done. Allows an Emron type useful load figure.
Gross is 2950
Useful 1068.9 - 474# of fuel gives cabin load of 594.9 that will carry three standard people and 84.9# of luggage.
Service ceiling of 17,700
Stalls clean at 64, dirty at 57
Vx dirty (20 flaps) 63 and clean at 89
Vy at 89and changes -2 kts per 5000' of altitude
Cruise climb is 100 mph 23" 2450
Takeoff 0 to 20 flaps at 2600 rpm
Flap speeds from 64 to 110 mph
Final clean 80 mph
Final dirty 70 mph
Auto pilot not to be used above 180 mph (or in turbulence)
A three second autopilot failure will result in a bank of 42-degrees and a loss of 120 feet
Autopilot circuit breaker at far left of panel.
Mains 42 #
Nose 49 #
Use pitot heat below 40 degrees F.
Do not use strobes or beacon in clouds
Always use cabin air when using cabin heat
Defrost has rotating knob for intensity.
Adjust cowl flaps to keep temperature at 2/3 of green range.
For maximum fuel have selector on left or right tank to prevent crossfeeding.
High Voltage Light
Alternator will go off line and light will come on.
One time reset is by turning off and then on of alternator master switch.
Outside courtesy light switch is behind right rear doorpost
Instrument floodlights are at top of panel overhang with switch lower left of yoke shaft. Use instrument rheostat to adjust intensity.
Flight Notes 1/17/02
--Carpet wet on right side
--High-pitched noise during climb, probably an air leak.
--All lower panel light switches left on.
--Oil leak showing behind propeller blade
--90 day temporary registration not completed and may be overdue for renewal.
--Seat belt retainer on exterior side of pilot's seat torn loose on one end.
--Tachometer does not allow small inputs to register smoothly. Will jump unexpectedly.
CESSNA 182 RG Transition
C-182RG ATC code is now C82R
Build on what you know about previous airplanes. Standardize your procedures. Increased complexity requires increased maintenance and decreased reliability. Upgrade your proficiencies to meet aircraft requirements. Flying the airplane will be harder until you understand how everything works.
Customize your checklists and procedures starting with the POH. Modify your checklists at least five times to make them efficient and useable. Learn the performance figures for VFR and IFR. This means set configuration, set power, and set trim. You are not competent until you are smooth. Just because the aircraft systems are similar does not mean that they are the same.
A faster aircraft requires that this information be processed more quickly and accurately. A fast aircraft can get you into trouble much faster. Mental and emotional saturation of the pilot occurs when the pilot is unable to keep up with the aircraft. Unfamiliarity with an aircraft is one of the primary causal factors in accidents. Accident levels are over twice as likely when you are below 50 hours in type. If you forget the gear you have probably forgotten something else. Use POH for engine operation, fuel pump, and performance recommendations.
Unfamiliarity in type is a greatly under-recorded accident type. Low time in type accidents occur due to misuse in areas of engine operation, systems operation, emergency procedures, and flight peculiarities. Reliance on the previous owner for your checkout is intellectually equivalent to going to a witch doctor. Get the most experienced instructor you can for your checkout.
Converting to a new type usually involves converting to different engine operating procedures. The more similar the engine the easier will be the engine checkout. You must know the operating requirements, what to do, and what not to do. Even aircraft of the same manufacture will have different fuel systems, capacities and consumption. Learn the fuel system as it relates to the engine. Fuel consumption figures seldom, if ever, match POH performance figures. Run your own performance tests on every flight you make until your estimates approach actual.
Cockpit familiarization is important. Know the how and where of all knobs, catches, latches, and controls. Be prepared to ask about instruments and how to use them. Seats, belts, doors, and luggage operation need to be worked out in conjunction with a weight and balance problem. Practice operating the cowl flaps while keeping your eyes over the cowling. Some pilots will have more difficulty than others.
Speaking of cowl flaps, consider reversing the leveling off checklist so that cowl flaps are closed shortly before leveling off and accelerating to cruise. This will serve to reduce shock cooling the engine. Likewise, consider not opening the cowl flaps as part of the post-landing checklist. Allow the engine to warm up after its cooling descent to landing. Give the engine about three minutes of taxi or shutdown time to adjust temperatures. Select cowl flaps during this period to keep temperatures even. Do anything you can to avoid extremes of heat and cooling. Don't move the propeller after shut down until the metals have cooled down for at least an hour. Differing expansion rates make warm engines have very tight tolerances.
The C-182 RG may have rubber bladder fuel tanks. These tanks
have inherent problems for preflight and operation. Preflight
draining the fuel sumps is a two-man operation. While the tail
is held down, the wings should be rocked to move any water toward
the sumps over ripples that often exist at the bottom of the
fuel bladders. Continue to hold the tail down while draining
the sumps. Drain the sumps a second time after the preflight
It is possible to get very mistaken fuel readings in a C-182. The rubber bladder may collapse inside the wing. Gauges will read full while you may have only a half-tank of gas. Gauges may continue to read full when you are half-empty. Watch the fuel gauge movement to be able to separate normal from abnormal in individual aircraft. The ramp and nose strut position of A C-182 can make considerable difference in the amount of fuel that the tanks will hold. Start at level in all directions and see what differences occur and how they occur on slopes. The tanks are inter-connected and you may need to go back to refill each tank a second time to get a maximum fuel capacity.
Another C-182RG that I fly has a fuel selector problem. The left tank will run dry while the right tank still has 30 gallons. Setting the selector off to the right by 20 degrees seems to help while going fully to the right with the selector makes no difference. This problem was detectable only by making four-hour flights. Referred to maintenance.
Several items of engine operation are worth noting. Closing cowl flaps on the ground does not aid engine heating. Over square operations are permissible and the additional full throttle fuel aids in engine cooling and reduces detonation.
Shock cooling can be reduced by making sure cowl flaps are
closed and planning your descent from far enough away. Begin
gradual power reductions in cruise so engine cooling beings before
descent. Reduce manifold pressure in small increment every several
minutes. Keep the power in the green and mixture in the lean
during any descent. Smoothness is the key.
Emergency procedures, gear operations, and cruise operations must be covered on the ground and then be enhanced in the air. Only 10% of the checkout time will be flight time. In flight and trimmed for climb do a series of Dutch rolls to get a feel for control response. Go to level cruise downwind and get a radar readout of ground speed. Reverse direction and get another readout. The average should give a no-wind ground speed. This can also be done with LORAN and GPS.
Practice both slow flight and minimum controllable a couple of times before doing a stall series. Using the speeds you have recorded, simulate both left and right landing patterns at altitude to a simulated touchdown and go around. Go to an airport and make several full stop-taxi back landings. After the flight review the flight and the flying. Plan a second flight to polish any rough edges and do some work on other than normal landings. Short final approach speed for short field landing is a 64 knots carrying power.
The first surprise in flying the C-182 is the torque, P-factor, and acceleration on the first takeoff. Prior warnings don't seem to make a difference. Greater rudder pressures are required for all slow flight and minimum control maneuvers for proper coordination. All controls will feel heavy. Use of trim is essential. Approach speeds will be higher.
Your initial training, while in a low powered and low performance aircraft, may or may not have prepared you for up-grading into more demanding aircraft. The main transition factors that you must have acquired consist of being able to anticipate radio communications, trim use and a light touch on the controls. Having these any transition will be smooth and seamless. Otherwise, considerable unlearning will be needed.
The potential for a serious operational mistake increased with the complexity of the airplane. Errors of omission or commission bring unpleasant results quickly. Over-weight and out of balance in a larger aircraft will cause flight problems beyond your physical strength. There are no 'inexpensive' repairs on large aircraft.
I recall a 450-hour instructor I once checked out in a Mooney 201. The Mooney is sweet, slick, and complex but not high performance by today's FAR. The initial ride was mostly familiarization with systems and airwork with several landings. The young instructor became rather indignant when I indicated that an additional ride would be required before I would sign him off. I told him to study the manual and review the tapes we had made on the flight. I warned him that he was in for some surprises on the next ride.
A few days later we departed the area for some work on smaller runways and a couple of down-slope landings. The 'student' got several surprises when he was just a knot or two fast on final. His ability to go-around made significant improvement. At the time the ATA of five miles existed along with a 3000' top. I have made my Mooney final examination to consist of a cruise arrival at the top outer edge of this area and accomplish a successful landing. It can be done, but only if everything is performed in a timely manner and correct sequence. Learning to do this took him several tries. Making a C-172 arrival in a high performance/complex aircraft is both a wasteful and inefficient use of time and aircraft capability.
The transition from slow and low to fast and high requires the level of anticipation be raised significantly. Better to have made some intermediate progressions. A major jump in speed, power and complexity is likely to be traumatic and less satisfying. Engine operation is going to be significantly different. Fuel injection engines have specific starting and operating differences from the more familiar carbureted engines. Systems are more complex and more likely to have emergency operations that require strict adherence to checklist procedures.
The constant speed propeller must be blended into the operation of the engine and the airplane. There are conflicting procedures from aircraft to aircraft that must be accommodated in transitions. In general, from an initial power setting and propeller rpm the constant speed propeller is able to adjust its pitch to maintain that speed through a wide range of power loss. The pressure is a measure of engine power and for usual operations it is recommended that this pressure in inches be related to the rpm of the propeller. By moving the manifold pressure (throttle) and the propeller rpm control in near sequential unison we get the best performance. Increase power by bringing up the rpm before the throttle. Decrease power by bringing back the throttle before the rpm.
Manifold pressure (MAP) does not show power output . MAP is a ratio between the amount of air that goes through the carburetor butterfly valve and the amount of air that passes through the intake valves. With the throttle full open the MAP will read close to the barometric pressure registered by the altimeter. Problems are revealed when there is a leak in the induction system or if ambient pressure is never reached. The manifold pressure gauge designed to show the pilot where to set the throttle to obtain a specific percentage of possible power. Aspirated engines lose about 2% horsepower per thousand-foot increase in density altitude.
Because you can control RPM pretty directly with the propeller control you require a "manifold pressure" gauge to tell you how hard you are making the engine work. You basically adjust the RPM with the propeller control and then set the manifold pressure with the throttle. To avoid detonation, which can ruin your engine quite rapidly, you usually decrease manifold pressure before decreasing RPM, and increase RPM before increasing manifold pressure.
There are at least 6 settings that will give you 70% power. Others give you better fuel economy or a quieter ride. Go for 23 square..ie 23"hg, 2300 rpm..that seems to be one that works. Mixture - Leaned with EGT and fuel flow meter. Cowl Flaps - Generally closed but you have to monitor Cylinder Head Temp to keep your jugs happy and warm.
Note: Large engines should be step cooled during descent.
This also requires descent planning. Cowl Flaps should be closed.
Mixture should be enrichened as required.
The retractable gear of the complex aircraft requires a relearning of landing and takeoff procedures. Just remembering to retract or lower is only a part of the problem. There are operating speeds and indicators that become a part of the acceptable procedure. Any interruption in the thought process or sequence including a go-around are apt to lead to gear up situation. I once had the go-around lead to a gear-up situation while checking out a highly experienced naval pilot.
Aircraft with rudder trim can have the trim so set that the nose wheel steering is affected. Some airplanes have the steering asymmetric so as to counter any P-factor. Most aircraft have the main gear toed out so that landing weights will cause the gear to align for reduced tire wear. Unusual tire wear is usually indicative of misalignment of the landing gear. Be aware that a sudden change in tire wear is a similar warning.
Shimmy dampers should be the first areas of landing gear check for many aircraft. The more secure the damper the better. If the nosewheel shimmies and the damper is secure then have the fluid level checked. Every preflight should include a landing gear check. Any gear problem regardless of type only becomes worse the longer it is undetected. When it comes to landing gear maintenance shops tend to replace the most expensive items first.
Check all oleo struts. The strut is a combination of oil and air in a small part of the strut. The presence of air is vital. Under landing shock the air compresses and absorbs landing impact energy. The air in an oleo strut is under very high pressure.
The main operational differences are the constant speed prop, rudder trim, and cowl flaps. You'll also have manifold pressure to consider in addition to the tach. Finally, the higher displacement engine will be happier if you are smooth and careful with your descent planning.
The primary danger with the 182 is landing on the nosewheel first. The airplane tends to be a bit nose heavy and landing on the nosewheel can bend the firewall, which is expensive to repair.
I've found that it's much, much easier to avoid that if you limit yourself to 20 degrees of flaps when you have a forward cg (i.e. one or two up front and no one in the back seats). I only use 30 or 40 degrees of flaps when I'm fully loaded. I also tend to go easy on the flap settings in a heavy crosswind or with significant gusts.
Most Skylane pilots will add a lot of nose up trim on final to lower the stick forces needed to flare. That's ok, but remember if you have to go around, a rapid addition of power will pitch the nose way up, and you have to be ready to push forward to prevent a stall until you can remove some flaps and re-trim.
You'll enjoy the additional load carrying capability, room, speed, climb power, and smoothness of the Skylane. I've found it to be one of the best combinations of performance, cost, and ease of operation.
Fuel Problems of Cessnas
Significant fuel imbalance has been explained away as due to overflow venting pipes being pressurized by air
in flight. However, it has been found to be due to fuel tank sealant obstructing fuel tank vent lines as well.
See Cessna service bulletin SEB 99-18
Landing the High Performance Aircraft
The aircraft loading makes a great deal of difference as to whether the landing can be made without power. With all seats filled it will be possible to flare without power. With only the front seats occupied a heavy single becomes a different animal during flare and some power is required to get the nose up. However, the pilot should try to perfect a procedure for a power-off landing such as might be required in an actual emergency. Failure to prepare such a procedure could be considered negligence.
High Performance Aircraft Descent
Getting slowed and down at the same time is quite difficult and unlikely to be successful. Suggest that you get the aircraft dirty and slow before starting down. Save lowering the gear if you can for the FAF. It is best to plan your descent as a cruise descent by planning ahead. A GPS can be programmed to tell you when to start down at a point that will get you to the FAF or a preset distance from the airport at pattern altitude. By being at 2000' above airport altitude when five miles away your descent profile will be the same as that of the ILS. In the ILS there will be a gear extension point such as the FAF, the first 10 degrees of flap can come sooner and the remainder of the flaps at the VDP or equivalent.
IFR flights it is best to keep up your speeds so that at one-mile from the marker you can reduce power to get speed to 120 before lowering gear and first 1`0-degrees of flap. Drop the gear before the flaps to reduce stress. Valley Pilots just did an $8000 repair job on their RGs\'s flaps including new skins caused by repeated too high of speed flap deployment.
C-182's Engine (Not RGs)
C-182's engine (0-470) is a reliable engine and based on engine failure accidents as a percentage of total accidents the engine has the lowest rate of all aircraft engines. However its 2.3 crashes per 100,000 hours of flying means you might expect to fly over 43,000 hours before your first engine related accident. C-182 has more runway accidents than any other GA aircraft. Over all accident rate of 3.7 per 100,000 flight hours means you should fly over 27,000 hours before having any accident.
Aircraft Basic Knowledge Sheet
Dimensions: Height_____ Length_____Wingspan_____ Propeller_____Tires_____
Full fuel_____Grade_____POH endurance______TRUE endurance_____
Cockpit l switches, knobs, lights and sounds: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Gross weight _____Empty weight_____Full Fuel weight_____Cockpit load available_____CG Range_______
Speeds: Va_____Vx____Vy____Vfe____ Vne____Vno____Vg____
Gross aircraft performance parameters in standard conditions:
S.L. takeoff_____Over obstacle_____ Landing______ Over obstacle______Configuration ______________
Short field-Speed____ Takeoff___Over obstacle ___Landing_____Over obstacle______Configuration_________
Soft field-Speed____ Takeoff___ Over obstacle___Landing_____Over bstacle______Configuration__________
Calibrated vs. Indicated Airspeeds
Full Flap Configuration of C-182RG
CAS 50 55 63 72 81
IAS 40 50 60 70 80
Density Altitude Performance at Gross
Conditions: Level Cruise a 65% power, 7500' Standard Temperature.
True air speed______Fuel used____per hour
Takeoff at Gross Weight, 5000' 100 F, over obstacle Ground run______Rate of Climb_____ Total distance to 50'
Complex Aircraft Advice
--Know your airplane systems
--Don't over-reach your training or experience
--Use your checklist
--Get proficiency checkouts
--Controls engine RPM
--Large pitch angles give low RPM and efficiency
--High RPM used for takeoff and landing
--Throttle controls manifold pressure
--Increase power by mixture, prop, throttle, and mixture
--Decrease power by throttle, prop, mixture
--Carburetor induction is icing sensitive
--Fuel injection better but gets filter icing
--Turbocharging is exhaust-driven for power at altitude
--Electric, hydraulic, or mechanical
--All systems have emergency extension
--Emergency system nor for retracting gear
--Indicator lights are 'push' to test type
--Squat switches do not always work
--Do not retract until airborne and out of useful runway
--Know your gear speeds
--Taxi with flaps down instead of gear up
--Beware flying gear water into freezing conditions
FAR 61.31(e) requires instruction and logbook endorsement. Insurance requires instruction and time in type. A safe checkout requires that the instructor and student be familiar with the aircraft and its systems. Begin by exchanging past experience, training, and qualifications. Do a page by page review of the POH and work through the performance charts and weight and balance figures. Review the systems both in the POH and in the aircraft as to operations, limitations and special considerations such as emergency factors. A written quiz is desirable. The quiz checks both that the instructor has covered the material and that the student has retained the required knowledge.
Begin the aircraft check in the cockpit. Go over instruments, radios, switches and knobs. Take at least an hour in the cockpit if the aircraft is well equipped. Preflight should emphasize location of inlets, outlets, problem areas, switches, and potential hazards some of which may be peculiar to this make and model. At least two flights are desirable. The first flight is to confirm normal operations and procedures. The second flight should explore the outer performance parameters and emergency operations.
Every aircraft make and type has a frequency of certain pilot errors. The generic error is usually systems management as it is affected by decision making. The type of flying will affect fuel management skills. Long cross-country trips flown at different altitudes and power settings require vastly different computations since high or low can make up to 40% difference in range.
Vfe >10° 95
VA 3100 lb 111
2600 lb 100
2000 lb 89
Vs SL 10K
Vx 64 66
Vy 88 74
- flaps 20˚
- rotate at 55
- gear up after obstacle
- accel to 75
- flaps 0˚
Lycoming 0-540, 2350 hp
Fuel: 100LL, 75 gal usable. Oil: 5-9 qt.
Power settings TAS GPH
Take off FT 2400 25
Cruise climb 23 2400 95 20
Approach speed settings
Clean 18 2400 120 level
In pattern clean 18 2300 120 level
In pattern gear dn 18 2300 100 level
The NRI Board has that "touch and go" landings can
be made in 7561X as long as the gear is not cycled in the process.
In addition, any pilot found responsible for "flats"
on the tires are to be assessed $100.00 for tire damage. Always
check the tires before and after flying. If damage exists before
you fly get a witness for verification. The ways to avoid such
damage are: (1) make touch down at minimum controllable speed,
(2) to avoid application of brakes while flaps are down, or (3)
not to leave the runway with excess speed or excessive braking.
Flap system damage occurs after repeated extension AT maximum approved speed. Extension at the high speed limit causes increased system wear, damage, and maintenance. 61X received major flap damage when flaps were extended on the ground in extremely windy conditions. Flaps have only a 2-G load limit.
The bladder type fuel tanks of 61X can, under certain conditions, give unreliable fuel quantity indications. Check with the maintenance officer to determine the last time that fuel capacity has been checked. (Last annual?) Bladders can be checked by mirror to find wrinkles or clip detachment. Never assume that full gauges means full capacity. Bladder equipped aircraft have a way of running out of fuel before reaching what would be a normal flight distance destination. Different years of C-182RG aircraft have fuel capacities that vary from 50 to 81 gallons.
Cessnas Draw Fuel Unevenly usually because of poor rigging. The fuel vent is on the left but is vented into the right tank. In flight the ram air into the vent pressurizes the right tank and causes it to give more fuel for the engine operation. During any extended flight we should anticipate that the right tank would use more fuel. This uneven draw is true even when both tanks have vents. In an extreme low-fuel condition you should avoid turns.
Are your tanks really full when they are topped-off? The nose strut inflation, slope of the tarmac surface can make many gallons difference in what is there and in what is indicated. Leave extra margins when you first start in type until you become familiar with any fuel gauge eccentricities. The better you know the systems of a given aircraft type, the better you can pick up on individual aircraft differences.
False oil level readings are also common to 61X. Oil consistently on bottom of aircraft. Pilot then puts in oil which blows out breather and all over underside of aircraft. This is because of the small o-ring on the dipstick. The o-ring forms an oil/air seal when it is removed and then full inserted. The o-ring forces the oil down in the dipstick tube. Immediate withdrawal will give a low reading. Situation can be reduced by inserting dip-stick slowly and allowing it to remain for over a minute before removal. This allows air to escape and oil to seek its at rest level. It is important to wait a minute or longer before taking the dipstick reading. This will allow the oil level to rise and give a true reading.
The gear up warning horn is set to come on at power reduction to about 15 inches as for landing if the gear is not lowered. However, it is possible to apply full power and cause an unintentional activation of the gear horn. The throttle linkage causes this problem. A very slight reduction of throttle will shut off the gear horn. If the horn comes on at cruise power settings, the application of full throttle and then a reduction to desired power seems to correct the problem.
Retractable Landing Gear
The kind of gear is determined by aircraft structure. Cessna's complex gear is becoming more reliable and less complex. Mooney's manual gear has become electric. Retractables are electric, hydraulic or a combination. Hydraulic systems are lighter but pressures are high and subject to leaks. Cherokee gear is held down by over-center locks and retracted and held up by hydraulic pressure with no mechanical uplocks.
Emergency extension just requires release of pressure. Cessna gear has down and up locks. Complex electrical systems with switches to prevent ground retraction are required. Unless you find a specific prohibition in the POH, it is a good idea to occasionally practice emergency gear extension. Use the manual and follow the procedure precisely.
Hydraulic systems must be checked for leaks. Over-center cams must be tight. Switches must be clean and connections tight. Lubrication showing is of no value. Check for cracks.
Do not press gear-operating speeds since a slightly lower gear lowering speed decreases by a factor of four the operating pressures against the mechanism. If the gear lights don't come on, first check the lights for proper operation. Wait before recycling the gear since you may have a fluid leakage problem.
The 182 RG system uses an electric motor to run a hydraulic pump. The pressure from this pump is routed to hydraulic rams, which are connected to the landing gear legs. Each gear operates independently so it possible to have the nose gear extended but not the mains. A gear up landing with the propeller stopped on horizontal does little damage. 61X has made such a landing. The FAA because of very minor damage did not call it an 'accident'. However, the insurance company was unhappy.
The dual electric/hydraulic system is dependent on a complex system of valves, switches and locks. Air in the pump can cause it to fail. Lack of fluid or an excess of air will make the emergency extension inoperative. The 182 RG uses two lights to indicate gear position. Orange for gear up and green for gear down. Lights can be exchanged to check if one is burned out. When the power is reduced below 12 inches the gear horn is activated. Sometimes the gear horn can be very intermittent giving a "static-like" noise, which does not sound much like a horn. The gear systems are full of malfunction opportunities, but 42% are due to pilot error. Trying to extend the gear at the last minute is a mistake since you may not have enough time for a full lock. Go around and start over.
I have had a Cessna gear experience where it would not lock down. The wheels kept cycling about a foot forward and back and the green light would not come on. We (my student and I) could not determine the cause, nor could our radio contact with an FBO. We chose to make a NORDO landing because every time the master was on the gear would begin cycling. We lowered the gear with the hand pump with the master off. While the student pumped to keep the gear full down, I made a very full stall landing since the gear would remain locked once the aircraft weight was on it.
Cessna Pilots Association lists an experience where a Cessna gear would not move forward to lock into position either due to low pump pressure from both electric and hand pump. Locking was achieved by doing power on stall just as gear handle was moved down. While plane was nose-down and before recovery all three gear moved forward and locked, and gear-down light came on.
I suggest that the pilot who makes a practice of mixing his flying with retractables and stiff-legs always call the "gear down" for every aircraft type. Personally I call the "gear" three times, at pattern altitude when it is lowered, base check for "Green and wheel", and final.
You should know how to check the operation of the C-182 gear system. If you have not read, studied, and made notes as to how the system works, do so before your checkout. Your best shot at making a malfunctioning system work is the first time. If the gear malfunctions climb until clear and work on the problem. Read the manual and slowly, carefully follow the recommended procedures. If that should fail you could slow the aircraft and apply negative G-loads by flying a roller coaster. Positive Gs can be applied in steep turns. Keep the airspeed low in performing the maneuvers to avoid over stressing the structure.
For all takeoffs the gear should not be retracted until there is no possibility of aborting to the departure runway. For IFR situations it is better to get the gear down earlier than later. Get the aircraft configured and trimmed before the FAF. On a short field takeoff over an obstacle you will be better off to leave the gear down until clearing the obstacle
---In an emergency the insurance company owns the airplane.
---Careful work with tow bar may be able to pull Cessna gear into position.
---Fly-by information from the tower is of questionable value.
---Dive and pull-up within Va (ref) maneuver may pop gear into place.
---Sliding with gear up on runway is best option instead of on dirt/grass and 1 or 2 wheels.
---Swap indicator bulbs to verify operation validity.
---Use the gear emergency list.
---Brief your passengers, belts as tight as possible.
---Pop and prop the doors open.
---In flare kill master and fuel selector.
---Belly landing tends to be better than no nosewheel due to unpredictable stress on structure of wing..
---Windmilling propeller give significantly more drag than a stopped propeller.
---Near stall will stop prop and it can be made horizontal with the starter.
---If there is a question regarding Cessna gear being locked in place, land as nose-high as you can.
---Once the weight of the Cessna is on the gear it holds in place and cannot retract.
Gear up Landings
--Pilot is distracted by unusual situation. a distraction is a clue to get right back to the checklist.
--Fatigue causes a focusing of attention that may miss lowering the gear.
--Stress is accumulative and non-specific. Problems completely unrelated to flying may cause attention to focus on the unimportant and neglect the very necessary act of lowering the gear.
--Proper used of a checklist that has the important items such as gear lowering highlighted, requires both the recitation of the checklist and completion of the required action. Recite, touch, look.
--Some operations have an unacceptable level of risk relating to the use of retractable gear. Do touch-and-go landing as a fixed gear airplane.
--Have a specific point, such as pattern altitude, for which the gear lowering procedure always begins.
--Confirm the gear down visually and by indicator and by voice.
--Question 'gear down' on base and final as an additional check.
--If you are not stabilized and behind the plane...go around.
--It is not enough to say each checklist item, you must do each item.
--The gear may not be down just when the complacent pilot fails the visually check it.
--Even in a fixed gear you can use the shadow to check the nose wheel.
The Standby Vacuum System in 61X
A back-up vacuum system comes with built-in throttle restrictions and is useless if AI failure occurs. Better to have an electric AI with inclinometer instead of TC. Vacuum tap from engine for operation of gyros is also useless if full power as when loaded with ice or a go-around is required.
Vacuum pumps usually last 400 hours and are replaced only on failure. An IFR aircraft without some sort of backup faces potential trouble. There is no way to practice using 61X's backup vacuum system. The system can only be made to function during an actual failure (or having an A & P disconnect the vacuum pump). The plus side of this system, however, is that in the event of failure you do get a warning light located on the far left of the panel. This certainly beats having the system fail without warning while you follow an attitude indicator and heading indicator of ever decreasing reliability.
The system in 61X uses the difference in pressure between the static (atmospheric) pressure and the intake manifold pressure. Unfortunately, the more power the engine develops the less pressure differential and the less pressure available for spooling up the vacuum gyros. If a vacuum failure should occur the warning light on the extreme left of the panel will come on. Pull the backup vacuum knob to open the valve to the intake manifold. Reduce power to as near 12 inches of manifold pressure as you can. The lower manifold reading you get the faster the gyros will spoolup. The system does not work without engine power. The idea is to get the gyros to full speed and the instruments operating correctly. You can then resume normal flight for a few minutes. The further below full power you remain, the longer the gyros will retain their speed. The spooling process will need to be repeated every few minutes for as long as the vacuum powered gyro instruments are required. If not VFR, head for VFR.
PRECISE FLIGHT AD: The FAA has issued a final Airworthiness Directive (AD 99-24-10) that applies to Precise Flight Model SVC III standby vacuum systems. The AD requires repetitive inspections and a flight manual revision, and was prompted by system malfunctions, particularly failures of the shuttle valve. The standby system uses intake manifold vacuum to power cockpit instruments in case of a primary vacuum-pump failure, and the FAA estimates there are 10,000 units installed.
Constant Speed Propeller
A constant speed propeller can change the pitch angle to allow full engine rpm at both cruise and slow speeds. The available pitch angles are both more shallow and steep than that available on a fixed pitch propeller. Using a fine pitch, (related to going up a flight of stairs with many small steps) you could get full rated rpm and power for takeoff and climbs. At cruise you can get a large propeller bite without having to run at high rpm.
You are able to select an rpm by adjusting the oil pressure to a semi-hydraulic pump in the propeller governor. This pump works against springs to give a higher pitch. Reducing the pressure allows the springs to flatten the pitch. In a failure mode the propeller returns to a flat pitch. This will cause the engine to overspeed. If during runup the cycled propeller is very slow to lose rpm it means dirty oil. An unplanned rise in rpm is symptomatic of decreasing oil pressure. Engine failure and a runaway propeller is not far behind. The emergency procedure in this event is to reduce power and raise the nose.
Over-square operations are a problem with turboed aircraft. BMEP is often related to manifold pressure. A high Brake Mean Effective pressure (BMEP)will cause will cause preignition when beyond design limits. Manifold gauge can be checked for accuracy by comparing with altimeter Kollsman window reading.
Changing Power of Constant Speed Operations:
Reduce MP first
Increase it last.
Leaning for takeoff
Often the EGT instrument does not seem to work properly. You
can lean a constant speed propeller for takeoff power using the
following technique. Constant speed props have a fine-pitch and
course-pitch stops that limit the range of available blade angles.
To use rpm as an indication of power, you have to use an engine
speed below the fine-pitch stop. Set about 2000 rpm and lean
to get a 100-150 rpm increase. This is peak power. Doing this
at the lower rpm will keep the pitch from changing.
Over Square Operations
Engine wear and fuel savings can be achieved by reducing rpm and increasing manifold pressure to maintain horsepower. Modern engines have approved power ranges for which this practice is o.k. These ranges are not in the POH but can be found in the engine manufacturer's handbook.
Squared Power Settings
---25 inches at 25000 rpm is a fallacy in power management
---Radial engines can be damaged at high manifold pressures and low rpm
" ---Radial engines can be damaged at high manifold pressures and low rpm"
I've heard this before but it's not any more true for Radials than inlines. I own a '54 North American T28 which uses a Curtis Wright R1820, a 1425 HP supercharged 9 cylinder radial engine. Take off power is 48" & 2700 RPM, cruise climb is 36" & 2400, cruise is 29" and 1900. The only time you square the power is zero thrust at 16" & 1600 RPM 1/2 flaps, everything else is over square
---Lindbergh taught WWII pilots how to fly manifold pressures and rpm in the P-38 which had inline engines.
Range was increased from 500 to 950 miles. That’s how we shot down Yamamoto.
---Unable to get a security clearance due to his forecasting a German victory before WWII, Lindbergh flew 50
combat missions in the Pacific as a manufacturer’s representative.
---Use the POH numbers and you will find the may over-square settings are acceptable.
---Over-square has FAA approval as written in Accident Prevention Publication 87-40-28
---FAA says set power for smooth running and low noise.
---General rule is that low rpm causes less vibration, noise, heat, and wear.
---Longer engine life is sure to follow.
---Best operation will vary from aircraft and engines
---Exception apply to takeoff, engine break-in with high rpm required.
The C-182 has 9.23 accidents per 100,000 hours of operation, somewhat higher than other makes of the same class. In IFR conditions the rate is much lower than other makes at .09 per 100,000 hours. Night accidents come in at 10.66 per 100,000 hours with non-IFR rated pilots making 75% of these. Carburetor icing is a significant cause of C-182 accidents as well as density altitude operations. Pilot complacency and over-confidence in the aircraft capabilities is the factor. The Cessna 182 is not spin-certified since it cannot meet spin recovery requirements.
Landing accidents are at a much higher rate than similar aircraft of other makes. The accidents usually do more damage to the aircraft than to the occupants. The C-182 is heavy on the controls and this heaviness continues (unexpectedly) into the flare and touchdown. Nearly half of C-182 landing accidents are due to hard landings
that result in collapsed nose gears and bent firewalls. The best solution to this difficulty is to always land with power on. 25% of the landing accidents are due to running off the end of a runway. Almost as many are caused by crosswind incidents. The go-around remains the best pilot option when things get beyond your abilities.
New to the Old C-182
----- Original Message -----
Subject: Your Website
Dear Mr. Whitt
I just purchased a 1962 Cessna 182, and in looking for information on the Web ran across your site multiple times. God what a hoot! I really appreciate your attitude and humor. As soon as I get time, I'll begin reading the whole thing, especially the history.
I have a problem, though. I cannot find any coherent procedures anywhere to use as a basis for flying this airplane. The guy I bought it from is helping me transition. (My other airplane is a Kitfox that I built myself - experience there is surprisingly helpful - if you don't keep the nose up on landing you will be very sorry.) I have the sneaking suspicion that his methods and mine are not going to be the same. We are flying precision approaches at 120 mph - this is fine as far as it goes because I'm having trouble slowing down, but I can't get flaps at that speed and it seems wrong to me.
Can you recommend somewhere I can find a step-by step checklist to help me with the basics? For example, I find that dropping 10 degrees of flaps is very helpful to slow down, but I don't know how fast I can be going and do that. I'm looking for basic numbers such as "cruise - 23/23", cruise descent 16/23, approach level -16/props max, 100 kts, etc." I am especially baffled trying to find settings that work in the pattern. I'm trying downwind 100, 10 degrees flaps, as I am turning to base 90kts/20 degrees, turn to final 80/30 degrees and never using full flaps in case I need to go around.
I know this letter is kind of long, but I wanted you to see the problems I'm having. Can your recommend somewhere to start? Cessna is of no help at all.
Thanks much. I'm really loving this airplane and want to keep it a lifetime; I want to show it the respect of flying it right.
Don't remember if I have ever flown a 1962 182 so I will have to wing-it in my answers. First, 0nly jets fly the ILS at 120kts. Your airspeed indicator is probably in miles per hour unless changed over the years about 1975-6. Suggest you slow to 90 knots on the approach. If that is not in flap range fly at the top of the white flap speed allowed. That should be your approach speed, holding speed and a good speed to slow to after reducing power abeam the numbers. |
Common damage to C-182 is bent fire wall. Never, NEVER, try a power off landing with only the front seats occupied. Get a little slow and you will not have enough elevator authority to keep the nose wheel up. By carrying power you can make your approach on final about five mph slower than book.
What I would try is much like the speeds and procedure you will read for the C-150, C-172, and C-182. Fly the downwind at level cruise. Abeam the numbers reduce the power to about 13/14 inches and trim (usually 3 full turns down (nose up)) while aircraft slows to 90 knots and holding pattern altitude.
This sets a standard pattern size for winds up to 12 knots down the runway.
Calm winds require a bit more downwind extension and stronger winds require a
bit earlier power reduction. On reaching 90 knots hopefully you are in the white
arc, put in 10 degrees of flap and turn base. and take off one of the three
turns of trim. Put the prop control full in. and fly base at 80 knots or
equivalent. Put in another 10-degrees of flap and take off another turn of trim
while flying at 70 knots or equivalent.
Turn final and put in flaps (Full gives best aim for flare) and trim for final approach speed which will vary with load. You should experiment at altitude to see what your Vso adjusted for weight will be. On final at altitude practice raising the nose and getting the stall warner at specific altitudes. Due to ground effect you cannot get the actual feel or figures.
Practice go-arounds in the air and ever nearer the ground until you can apply
full power, hold the nose level while accelerating and milking off the flaps
while reaching climb speed and initiating the climb. The actual flare should
consist of keeping the far end of the runway covered with the nose while keeping
enough power to give the elevator the necessary authority. You should never make
the landing when and where you want it. The decision is the airplane's and how
it feels about allowing a landing to occur.
More if you need it.,
Short field landings
C-150 Take Off 735' /50' 1385 Landing Distance 445 /50' 1075
C-172 Take Off 945 /50' 1685 Landing Distance 550 /50' 1295
C-182 Take Off 795 /50' 1625 Landing Distance 545 /50' 1285
C-182 RG 20-degrees for soft or reduced roll climb at 59 knots. Remove flaps when at 70 knots.
An airplane should not be expected to get out of a space where it has landed.
Those who fly the 182-RG should know that a takeoff clean-up can be accomplished by raising gear and flaps at the same time without any change in pitch attitude. The reverse of this is also true; you can lower gear and the first 10 degrees of flaps without changing pitch attitude while leaving power alone for the resulting approach descent.
For the unfamiliar pilot there are several options that will make some encounters and situations more resolvable. If you get 'behind' the airplane or encounter weather/turbulence conditions, reduce power and lower the landing gear and put in 10 degrees of flaps or no flaps if turbulence is severe. Flaps are strucurally limited to 2-Gs. The greatest problem a pilot faces is that any loss of control may result in a high speed descent where control input may damage the airplane and make it uncontrollable. Get slowed up sooner rather than later.
In some situations such as engine failure on takeoff or elsewhere it may be desirable to extend the glide. If the engine loses power you can retract the landing gear, remove any flaps, pull the propeller knob out to the full coarse setting. Lastly, you could raise the nose to give the propeller an opportunity to stop and possibly set it horizontal with the starter.
Flight Transitions Chart
Flight Condition ----- Cowl --Wing --Carb ---Manifold -----Prop ---Speed --------Trim
Gear Position --------Flaps ----------Heat ---Pressure -----rpm ----Knots---- + = Nose up
Climb ---------------Open ----0 ----off --------24" -------2300 -----90 ----------Neutral
Level Cruise --------Closed ---0 ---off ---------24" -------2300 -----140 -----N -1.3 down
Cruise Descent -----Closed ---0 ----on --------19" -------2300 ------140 -----N - 1.3 ??
Approach Level ----Closed ---10 ---on --------19" -------2300 ------100 -----N --??
Approach Descent -Closed ----10 ---on -------15" -------Full --------100 -----N
Gear down ---------Closed ----10 ---on -------12" -------Full --------100 -----N
Gear up -----------Required ----0 ---on -------15" -------2300 -------90 -----N --+ 1
Question: What is the suggested gear position during a C-182 RG go-around?
Leave the gear down.
Question: What is required to actually demonstrate the operation of the vacuum backup system?
Vacuum pump must be disconnected.
Question: What level of pilot proficiency should be expectedly the end of an aircraft checkout?
Performance to private pilot level.
TRAINING PLAN FOR TRANSITION TO HIGH PERFORMANCE AIRPLANES Name____________________Date_________
Grade of Certificate ____________ Ratings and Limitations _________________
Class of medical_______Date__________
Total flight time:____________ Aircraft to be used___________N#______________
Airplane handbook and flight manual
SYSTEMS AND PROCEDURES
FLIGHT PLANNING FOR AIRCRAFT
Weight and Balance
CHECKLIST AND OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES
Procedures to be covered in flight according to Practical Test Standards.
CHECKLIST AND PRESTART
Pre takeoff check
IFR Unusual attitudes
All takeoffs and landings
No flap landing
POST LANDING AND SHUTDOWN
TOTAL HOURS ____________
COMPLETION OF TRANSITION TRAINING
PILOT ENDORSEMENT Remarks:________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ (Instructor)_________Date________ I have received transition training to high performance airplanes and completed the ground and flight training noted above. ___________________(signed) Date__________Duration of the flight._______
INSTRUCTOR ENDORSEMENT Remarks:__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________Date________Eugene L. Whitt #1876572 CFII Expires 1-96 I have received transition training to high performance airplanes and completed the ground and flight training noted above. ___________________(signed) Date__________
Copy to NRI Safety Officer
Endorsement for a pilot to act as PIC in high performance airplane. FAR 61.31e
I certify that I have given flight instruction in a high performance airplane to Mr./Ms __________,holder of pilot certificate #__________, and
find him/her competent to act as PIC in high performance airplanes.
SS [date} J.J. Jones #__________CFI Exp________
FLIGHT CHECKOUT PLAN AND CHECKLIST Name________________________________________Date_____________
Grade of Certificate __________________#_____________________
Ratings and limitations______________________________________
Class of Medical __________________________Date______________
Total flight time________________Time in type________________
Aircraft: Make and model__________N#___________________
Location(s) of checkout ____________________________________
Review of maneuvers and procedures:Handbook
Weight and balance
Start and engine operation
Takeoff and landing
Cross country performance
Remarks_____________________________________________________________Signed __________________CFI #_____________Expiration________ I have received an aircraft checkout which consisted of the ground and flight instruction noted above. Signed_______________Date________
A suggested checklist. There are other lists in the plane. It is best that you make and use one that follows your mode of operation. All items in the Operating Manual checklist must be covered. Any checklist should go through several revisions. The final revision should be made so that it is functionally in line with the way you operate the aircraft in all flight phases. This is a "touch and verify" type list.
Because it is difficult to slow when you keep your speed up,
at one mile from the other marker reduce power
to get level flight a 140 knots. At 140 knots drop the gear and first 10-degrees of flap. (Gene's preference is
ATIS INFO: ATIS INFO:
TUNE & VERIFY
COMM 1 NAV 1 OBS MDA TIME
COMM 1 NAV 1 OBS MDA TIME
NDB HEAD RW MDA TIME
FUEL APPROACH NORMAL Vne
GALLONS TOTAL Vs CLEAN STALL CRUISE Vle MAX GEAR EX
GALLONS USABLE Vs FF/G
USABLE FUEL @ TABS GLIDE @GROSS
OIL MIN. 6 MAX 8 GLIDE @ HALF
EMPTY GROSS Va @ #3100
RAMP @ #2600
Vx @ #2100
Vy Vfe MAX 10 FLAPS
Vr Vfe MAX 40 FLAPS
Start Runup IFR APPROACH T T T T T T
CONTROLS FREE CONTROLS FREE TURN TIME TWIST
FUEL BOTH INSTRUMENTS
MIXTURE RICH AMMETER & FUSES CONFIRM..PLATE UP
COWL OPEN OIL TEMP SET..VOR/ILS/NDB/DME/MARKER
CARB HEAT IN OIL PRESSURE CONFIRM PRESSURE
PRIME 2-4 PUMPS (1 HOT) SUCTION CONFIRM HEADING
MASTER ON FUEL PRESSURE IAF/ALT/TIME/DIST TO MDA
THROTTLE 1/2" ART HORIZON SET TOWER FREQ
FUEL PUMP ON-OFF D.G. WITH COMPASS MISSED..HEADING ALT
CLEAR PROP BOTH TANKS
START-LEAN FOR TAXI ALTIMETER ERROR
FUEL PRESSURE RUNUP 1700 RPM
OIL PRESSURE MAGS CHECKED LANDING
SUCTION CARB HEAT GEAR DOWN/GREEN LITE
RADIOS CYCLE PROP 300 RPM CARB HEAT IN
SET COMS #1 & 2 CHECK IDLE PROP FULL
SET NAVS #1 & 2 TRIM MIXTURE RICH
SET FUEL CALC TRANSPONDER TO ALT COWL CLOSED
SET ADF & LORAN INTERIOR FLAPS SET
SET MARKER BEACON WINDOWS CLOSED SEAT BELTS
TRANSPONDER 1200/STANDBY DOORS LATCHED
COM SELECTOR AUTO/PHONE SEAT BELTS
ATIS PROP FULL
TAXI CLEARANCE STROBE/BEACON/LITES
IFR AUX VAC ON TIME OFF SHUT DOWN
IFR PITOT HEAT RADIO 121.5
MASTER RADIO OFF
TAXI TAKEOFF LIGHTS OFF
NEEDLE/BALL MP CHECK LEAN TO OFF
MAG COMPASS TAP BRAKES MASTER OFF
SET FLAPS 10-DEGREES RETRACT GEAR & FLAPS MAGS OFF/KEYS OUT
PITOT HEAT AS REQUIRED MP TOP OF GREEN @ 85K YOKE PIN
FUEL SELECT -RIGHT
CRUISE PITOT COVER ON
MP @ 23"
PROP @ 2300
CLOSE COWL FLAPS
CLEARANCE TUNE AND VERIFY RADIOS
DEP ROUT COMM 1 NAV 1 OBS MDA TIME
VIA COMM 2 NAV 2 OBS MDA TIME
ALTITUDE CLIMB & MAIN
SQUAWK NDB HEAD RW MDA TIME
ATIS-INFO ATIS INFO
GUMP, GRUMP, GRUMPS
Gas, (Radio), Undercarriage, Mixture, Propeller,(Seatbelt)
Preflight Prestart Start
Gear down-green Preflight-complete Carb heat-cold
Avionics-off Seats-belts-harness Prop-high
Fuel quantity Doors Prime
Selector-both Selector-Both Mixture-rich
Baggage door Avionics-set-Auto pilot Pump on/off
Tires Electrical-off Throttle 1/4"
Oil 6-8 quarts Brakes-test-set Master
Tanks-sumps-rock plane Circuit breakers Clear/start
Gear doors Gear lever down 800 rpm
Before Takeoff Normal takeoff
Seats/belts/doors/windows Flaps 0-20 Climb
Brake-set Carb heat-cold Square
Controls Full throttle Power
Trim-set Rotate 50 kias Prop
Selector-both Climb 70/20 degrees Flaps-up
Mixture-rich 80/0 degrees Lean
rpm Vx 54
Mags-L-R Vy 80
Carb heat Cruise 95
Flight instruments Post landing
Lights Carb heat
Throttle friction Lean
Cruise Descent Landing Go around Emergency
Power Seats/belts Power At takeoff
Prop Selector-both Carb heat Flaps up
Mixture Mixture Cowl flaps Flaps 20 Full flaps
Cowl flaps/Flaps Gear-green 70KIAS Maneuvering
VSI 10 @140 100Kts Prop to 89 at 1950 lbs
95 Cowl flaps Glide at gross
Start Runup Landing
Controls free Controls Gear down
Selector-both Instruments Carb heat
Mixture Oil Prop full
Cowl flaps-open temp Mixture rich
Carb Heat-in pressure Cowl closed
Prime Suction Flaps set
Master Fuel pressure Seat belts
Throttle 1/2" AI
Pump on-off HI Shut down
Clear/start Selector-both Radio 121.5
Lean for taxi Altimeter Master radio off
Fuel pressure error Lights off
Fuel quantity/set Runup Mixture Lean to off
Suction 1700 rpm Master off
Radios Set Magnetos Mags off/keys on cowl
ATIS Carb heat Yoke pin in
Clearance Cycle prop Pitot cover
Taxi Trim Cruise
Needle/ball Transponder to alt 23 inches
Compass Interior windows/doors Prop 2300 rpm
flaps Prop full Lean to 1450 TIT
Strobe/beacon/lights Close cowl flaps
Note time off
A suggested checklist
--There are other lists in the plane.
--It is best that you make and use one that follows your mode of operation.
--All irtems in the Operating Manual checklist must be covered
1. SUMP 15. E INSIDE 25. L TANK GEAR
2. L FLAP 16. OIL 6-8 26. WARNER CONTROLS
3. LUGGAGE 17. SUMP 27. PITOT LOG TIMES
4. ANTENNAE 18. PROP 28. VENT PAPERS
5. EMPENNAGE 19. SPINNER 29. TIP RADIO MASTER
6. SURFACES 20. GEAR 30. L AILERON SWITCHES
7. CHAIN 21. DOORS 31. GEAR TRIM
8. TAB 22. 3 TIRES MASTER-on
9. R FLAP 24. STATIC AIR FLAPS (2)
10. R AILERON MASTER -off
11. R TIP
12. R CHAIN
13. R SUMP
14. R TANK
-PRESTART- -START- -TAXI- -RUN UP-
SEATS 1. "CLEAR" 1. BRAKES 1. WIND
BELTS 2. 6 BLADES 2. CONTROLS 2. Seats-Belts-Doors
DOORS 3. PRESSURE 3. D.G. 3. CONTROLS
KEY 4. MIXTURE LEAN 4. MIXTURE
BREAKERS 5. RADIO MASTER 5. 1700 RPM
FUEL 6. RADIOS (9) ALTERNATOR
MIXTURE 7. ATIS VACUUM
CARB HEAT 8. INSTRUMENTS AMPS
PRIME 9. FLAPS 6. MAG CHECK
THROTTLE 10. RADIO 7. C. H.
8. 800 RPM
-TAKEOFF- -CLIMB- -LEVEL- 9. TRIM
LIGHTS 1000' 1. TRIM 10. INSTRUMENTS
X-PONDER TOP OF GREEN 2. COWL F 11.
TIME 2. MANIFOLD UP 3. POWER 12. RADIO
FLAPS (2) 3. TRIM 4. LEAN
OFF AT 60K
88K RATE SPEEDS IN KNOTS
GEAR ROTATE 60 Va 3100# 112 BEST GLIDE 80, 72, 64
FLAPS Vx 64 Va 2550# 101 APPROACH 70
TRIM Vy 88 Va 2000# 89 SHORT FIELD 63
ENROUTE 100 GEAR 140 (120) MOMENT
--EMERGENCY-- FUEL 75 GAL 7561X EMPTY WEIGHT 1857.5 64.4
CHECKLIST USE 13.5 GPH FULL LL FUEL 450.0 21.5
80kts - TRIM OIL 6-8 FRONT 400.0 15.0
FIELD AND WIND GROSS 3,100# REAR 390.0 29.5
ELECT. PUMP CABIN LOAD 792.5# 3097.5 130.4
RESTART Va 125 to 145
-DESCENT- -DESCENT #2- -PRELANDING- -LANDING- -POSTLANDING- SHUTDOWN
MIXTURE 1. MIXTURE 1. MIXTURE 1. MIXTURE 1. FLAPS/FLAPS 1. 121.5 OFF
MANIFOLD 2. MANIFOLD 2. MANIFOLD DOWNWIND 2. MIN BRAKES 2. ELECTRICAL
5 FOR 5 3. HOLD ALT 3. GAUGES 2. 12 INCHES 3. RADIO 3. MAG CHECK
AIRSPEED 4. GEAR 4. GEAR 3. GEAR 4. CONTROLS 4. MIXTURE
YELLOW 5. AIRSPEED 4. PROP/100KTS 5. MIXTURE 5. MAGS OFF
TRIM - 3 DN 6. LOG TIME
S - switches off
L - Lean control full rich
I - ignition on
M - master on
S - safety (clear)
R -RPM to idle
O - Oil presssure check
A - ammeter check
R - Radios on
S - suction check
C - controls
I - instruments
G - gas selector & quantity
A - Attitude set (trim, flaps)
R s- runup
S - suction check
L - lights as required
C - camera (transponder)
A - Action (call tower_
TLC - tender, loving care
T - Transponder off
L - Lights off
C - Cancel IFR, close VFR
S - Switches off
L - lean control out
I - Ignition off
M - master off
S - secure plane
Still another checklist made up of two cards with items on both sides. Three of the sides
have two columns each.
Card 1-Side I
Column 1 Column 2
Refueling mark R tire
L chain R flap
Pitot cover R sump
Doors R tank
Ladder Oil 6 qt minimum
Key on floor Engine sump
Control lock Prop/leaks
Log book Spinner
Magneto/key check Belt
R master Cowling
Fuel to both Nose gear
Guages Nose tire
Flaps 10°/Cowl flaps Roll tires
Fuel pump / Static air
Master OFF L tank
Get strainer Stall warner
L sump Overflow /
L flap L tip
Antennae L aileron
Elevator L tire
Card 1-Side II
Gross 3100 @ 80
2550 @ 70
2000 @ 65
Trim nose high
Field & wind
Fly to field
121.5/7700 Words x3
Flaps when certain
Card 2-Side 1
Column 1 Column 2
MAGS OFF & KEY OUT
YOKE PIN IN
ATIS INFO: ATIS INFO:
TUNE & VERIFY
COMM 1NAV 1 OBS MDA TIME
COMM 1 NAV 1 OBS MDA TIME
NDB HEAD RW MDA TIME
FUEL APPROACH NORMAL Vne
GALLONS TOTAL Vs CLEAN STALL CRUISE Vle MAX GEAR EX
GALLONS USABLE Vs FF/G
USABLE FUEL @ TABS GLIDE @GROSS
OIL MIN. 6 MAX 8 GLIDE @ HALF
EMPTY GROSS Va @ #3100
RAMP @ #2600
Vx @ #2100
Vy Vfe MAX 10 FLAPS
Vr Vfe MAX 40 FLAPS
Throttle - Full Manifold Pressure
Propeller - High RPM
Mixture - Full Rich
Cowl Flaps - Open
Airspeed - Vr - Rotate
Gear - UP
Throttle - Top Of the Green ARC (25-28" HG); as you climb, you will increase manifold pressure to maintain max climb power
Prop - Top of the Green ARC (2500-2600 RPM)
Mixture - POH Some aircraft have a climb mixture setting.
Cowl Flaps - OPEN
Gas - Set to Fullest Tank with boost pumps on or as required.
UNDERCARRIAGE - Gear DOWN ,wait till you're established on downwind or when you intercept the glide slope on an ILS before lowering the gear. VERIFY
MIXTURE - RICH.
PROPS - Increase to Full RPM after established on final.
SEATBELTS - Everybody give em a tug.
N111GG NRI C-182
Nice to know failure mode operation of Century IIB Autopilot
--not affected by failure of turn coordinator
--Random roll results from failure of attitude indicator
--Wings remain level if directional gyro fails
C-182 IIIGG Numbers
--Maximum gross 2950 pounds
--Empty weight does NOT include unusable fuel or full oil
Full fuel 84--useable 79
Full oil 10-minimum 6 quarts
Endurance @75% 7500 msl 4hours 50 minutes
--V speeds (~ means approximately)
Vr 60 mph ~52 kts
Vy 89 ~78
Va @ gross 126 ~109
Vfe 10-degrees; 160 ~140
Full 110 ~96
Vso 68 ~60
Vsl 63 ~54
Climb initial 100/87 @ 2300 rpm
cruise 120/104 @2450 rpm
Approach full flaps 70-80/~61-~70
no flaps 68/~58
Short/soft t/o & landing 69/~61
Cessna vs Piper
--Seat belt systems are somewhat different.
--Flap relationship to trim is unique one from the other.
--Best to have your own POH for every aircraft you fly.
--Most of the checklist items will have a different sequence
--The first item of your emergency checklist will be different.
--Manufacturer's instructions related to carburetor heat differ.
--Night and cockpit lighting systems require distinctive explanations.
--The maneuvering and taxiing blind spots are usually quite different.
--One door system is more likely to accidentally open as the other is.
--Cross wind and ground handling in strong winds distinctly different.
--One flap system is more controllable and consistent than the other is.
--Seat adjustment systems are just different enough to cause difficulties.
--Never plan to immediately fly hard IFR in a newly transitional aircraft.
--The way you hold your hands on the throttle should be quite different
--One fuel system is twice as likely to cause an engine failure as the other is.
--POH numbers and explanations vary year to year and even within the year.
--You should always make your own aircraft specific operational checklist.
--Confirm the 'neutral' position of the trim setting indicator with actual trim position.
--Learn all you can about the failure modes of all unfamiliar instruments in either type.
--Gear retraction and extension of one is less likely to give problems than the other is.
--The way you use the rudder pedals and brakes have a VERY dangerous difference.
--The preflights are distinctly different with differing critical points where mistakes occur.
--Get some pre-flight cockpit time for reading the POH and referencing the cockpit to it.
--Run the trim wheel all the way up and down, manually and electrically to become familiar.
--Within the same models of each manufacturer there are wide critical airspeed differences.
--Both manufacturers have made wing, elevator and instrument changes affecting critical speeds.
--Distinct differences in handling when at gross and near either end of the center of gravity range.
--With two exceptions, one type is more likely to have a stall/mush accident in all its models than the other is.
Removal and storage of cover
Checking time log/pitot cover and control lock storage
Cargo doors not to be slammed.
Location of POH/weight/ balance and aircraft papers.
Priming without throttle
Propwash effects behind
Detecting carburetor ice
Power vs brakes
Controls set for wind direction
Facing wind or local requirements
Use of hand brake/foot brakes
Magneto check drop comparison
Clearing fouled plugs
Clearing the bases and final
Confirming power available
First power reduction at 1000'
Allow acceleration before power reduction|
Setting 75%, rpm and leaning
Trim and use of auto pilot (Operation and failure modes)
Heading and altitude control
Coordination of flight
Initial call to ATC and follow-up
Non-tower airport operations (Pattern operations)
Simulated engine failure
3 take offs and landings to include
Short and Soft
Full flap go-around
--Over confidence, excessive expectations
---Five hours minimum if current and capable in lighter Cessna
---Always land with power not below 10-12 inches
---Damage to nose gear and firewall due to landing impact is common.
---Cowl flap retraction at cruise adds 5-knots
---Land with prop control (blue) full forward to be go-around ready
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