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C-172 Procedures
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C-172 Maneuver Procedures; …C-172 Spins; ...C-172 Checklists;Aircraft Basic Information Sheet; …No Trim Landing System; …C-172 Accident Rate; …Calibrated vs Indicated Speeds; …IFR Performance; …Fuel Consumption; How to Land a C-172; …C-172 Speeds; …C-172 Emergency Turn; …Cessna Landings; ...Landing a C-172 (Opinion) ...C-172as an Investment; ...As Engineered C-172 Landing and Takeoff;  Single Tank above 5000'; ... 

C-172  Maneuver Procedures
TAKEOFF/CLIMBS.
............ LEVEL CRUISE #1................. LEVEL CRUISE #2
Trimmed for cruise.................... From normal climb..................... From normal climb
1 FULL TRIM DOWN............LEVEL WINGTIP..................... CLIMB 100' HIGH
Trimmed for full flap.................. HOLD NOSE LEVEL...............DIVE TO ALTITUDE
landing w/power 60 kts.............. 1 FULL TRIM UP.....................1/3 TRIM UP
TRIM O.K. AS SET.................ACCELERATE.........................REDUCE TO 2550
Trimmed for full flap...................1/3 TRIM UP............................FINE TRIM 2450 RPM
landing no power 60 kts............ 2450 RPM ................................TAKES 20 SEC.
TRIM UP 1 FULL TURN........FINE TRIM CLIMB ATTITUDE
FULL POWER

At cruise C-172 has nose down attitude as RIGHT RUDDER REQD. compared to C-150. Application of trim must FINE TRIM 75 KTS be done in anticipation of acceleration/climb

Cessna 172 (sealevel, gross weight, full flaps) crossing FAA tree above 50 feet at 62 KCAS the horizontal distance along the flare close to runway to touchdown at stall speed, is 570 feet. Slowing to 57 knots that distance is cut from 570 feet to only 320 feet.

CLIMBING TURNS-LEFT..........CLIMBING TURNS-RIGHT...............LEVEL L-R TURNS
"clear left"............................"clear right"................................"clear r-l"
LITTLE/NO RUDDER....................LEAD R-RUDDER................................LEAD R-RUDDER TO RIGHT
YOKE-SLIGHT FWD.....................YOKE-SLIGHT FWD............................LEAD R-RUDDER FROM LEFT
30 DEGREE BANK........................30 DEGREE BANK.................................30 DEGREE BANKS
BACK PRESSURE 65 KTS...........BACK PRESSURE 65 KTS...................LT BK YOKE AT CRUISE
ROLL OUT +15 DEGREES............ROLL OUT +15 DEGREES...................ROLL OUT + 15 DEGREES
R-RUDDER/LEVEL WINGS.........RELAX R-RUDDER/LEVEL.................YOKE-RELAX AT CRUISE
YOKE-SLIGHT FWD. 75 KTS.....YOKE-SLIGHT FWD. 75 KTS............. LITTLE/NO RUDDER
R-RUDDER AS REQUIRED.........R-RUDDER AS REQUIRED 75 KTS...75 KTS

70 KT DESCENT ........................70 KT DESCENT w/FLAPS................. TURNS IN DESCENT
From level cruise............................From 70 kt descent.................................LEAD R-RUDDER TO RIGHT
CARB HEAT..................................4 COUNT FLAPS-10 DEGREES ......... LEAD R-RUDDER FROM LEFT
1700 RPM.......................................ANTICIPATE w/ FWD YOKE............. HEAVIER RUDDER REQD.
HOLD HDG....................................HOLD HEADING...................................AS FLAPS ADDED
3 FULL TRIM DOWN..................1 FULL TRIM UP....................................GREATER FWD/BK YOKE
FINE TRIM 70 KTS..................... FINE TRIM 70 KTS................................REQD. w/MORE FLAPS +4 COUNT FLAPS-20 DEG.
TO HOLD AIRSPEED
ANTICIPATE w/FWD YOKE
60 KT DESCENT
FULL FLAPS
SLOW TO 60 KTS
FINE TRIM ONLY

NO FLAP SLOW FLIGHT........RIGHT SLOW FLIGHT TURNS.....LEFT SLOW FLIGHT TURNS
CARB HEAT................................"clear right"........................................."clear left"
1700 RPM......................................LEAD R-RUDDER...............................L-AILERON/LT R-RUDDER
HOLD HDG. & ALT....................BK PRESSURE/+POWER REQD...... BK PRESSURE/+ POWER
FULL TRIM DOWN....................LEFT AILERON...................................10-30 DEGREE BANK
17-1800 RPM................................10-30 DEGREE BANK..........................1/2 BANK ANGLE
RECOVERY R-RUDDER.............1/2 BANK ANGLE RECOVERY..........LEAD R-RUDDER
50 KT TO MIN. CONTROL........L-AILERON TO LEVEL.......................AILERON TO LEVEL
RECOVERY...................................RELAX R-RUDDER.............................POWER TO HOLD ALT.
FULL POWER..............................POWER TO HOLD ALT......................Can lead to cross- control stall)
LOWER/HOLD NOSE................(Can lead to cross-control stall)
R-RUDDER
UP TRIM

FULL FLAP SLOWFLIGHT.......F-F SLOWFLIGHT R-TURNS.......F-F SLOWFLIGHT L-TURNS
CARB HEAT .................................."clear right"....................................... "clear left"
1700 RPM .......................................LEAD HEAVY R-RUDDER...............LEAD LEFT AILERON
WHITE ARC/FULL FLAPS..........LEFT AILERON FOR BANK............R-RUDDER AGAINST BANK
YOKE FWD AND THEN BK......10-30 DEGREE BANK.........................10-30 DEGREE BANK
HOLD HDG. & ALT.....................+POWER REQUIRED FOR ALT.......+POWER REQUIRED FOR ALT.
FULL POWER/R-RUDDER..........1/2 BANK ANGLE RECOVERY........1/2 BANK ANGLE RECOVERY
1 FULL TRIM UP...........................MORE L-AILERON TO LEVEL.........LEAD R-RUDDER
40 KTS TO MIN. CONTROL........RELAX R-RUDDER............................LEVEL w/AILERON+-
POWER FOR ALTITUDE
FINE TRIM

SLOW FLIGHT RECOVERY.................45 DEGREE 720 STEEP TURNS
FULL POWER............................................Begin from level cruise
R-RUDDER.................................................LEAD HEAVY R-L RUDDER
MILK FLAPS TO 20 DEGR......................QUICKLY TO 45 DEGREE BANK
HOLD ALT. & ACCELERATE................BACK PRESSURE TO HOLD NOSE
CLIMB SPEED-FLAPS UP.......................LOCK ELBOW TO HOLD YOKE
1 FULL TRIM DOWN...............................LOCK HORIZON/NOSE POSITION
CLIMB OR LEVEL CRUISE......................NOISE & VSI BEST CLUES
FINE TRIM ................................................2 FULL TRIM DOWN OPTIONAL+-POWER
........... .........................................................WAKE TURBULENCE 2ND 360 DEGREES
........... .........................................................IF W. T. BACK PRESSURE/DECREASE BANK
........... .........................................................+- 5 DEGREES OF BANK & 50' ALTITUDE
........... .........................................................RECOVERY 22 1/2 DEGREES EARLY
.....................................................................SHARP FORWARD YOKE
.....................................................................CENTER BALL
........... .........................................................TRIM IF REQUIRED
.......... .........................................................+ 10 DEGREES OF HEADING

POWER-OFF STALL.................POWER-ON STALL.....................DEPARTURE STALL
CLEARING TURNS......................CLEARING TURNS.......................CLEARING TURNS
CARB HEAT.................................CARB HEAT ..................................CARB HEAT
PWR TO OFF................................PWR TO 1700 .................................PWR TO 1700
HOLD HDG. & ALT.....................HOLD HDG. & ALT........................HOLD HDG. & ALT.
R-RUDDER AS REQD..................R-RUDDER AS REQD....................R-RUDDER AS REQD.
BUFFET OR STALL.....................SLOW TO 55 KTS...........................SLOW TO 55 KTS
YOKE RELAX FORWARD.........PWR UP 1700/FULL ......................PWR UP 1700/FULLNOSE TO/BELOW HORIZON......................................R-RUDDER .....................................20 DEGREE BANK-CENTER BALL
LEVEL WINGS..............................BUFFET OR STALL.......................BUFFET OR STALL
FULL POWER-CLIMB 75 KTS..YOKE FORWARD..........................YOKE FORWARD
R-RUDDER TO HOLD HDG.......NOSE TO/BELOW HORIZON......NOSE TO/BELOW HORIZON
........................................................LEVEL WINGS.................................LEVEL WINGS
........................................................FULL POWER-CLIMB 75 KTS .....FULL PWER-CLIMB 75 KTS
........................................................R-RUDDER TO HOLD HDG...........R-RUDDER TO HOLD HDG.

-------------DUTCH ROLLS-------------------
START TO LEFT......................BEFORE NOSE MOVES R
PICK POINT/HEADING..........TAP L RUDDER
LEFT AILERON........................START BANKING L10-30 DEGREE BANK
R-RUDDER ...............................R-RUDDER
BEFORE NOSE MOVES L.......BEFORE NOSE MOVES L ETC.
KEEP BANK CHANGING.......HOLD R-RUDDER
Student 5 lessons.........................RELAX R-RUDDER
Pilots 2 lessons
Dutch rolls are a required skill for crosswind landings

APPROACH STALL.................ACCELERATED STALL..................FULL FLAP GO-AROUND
CLEARING TURNS...................CLEARING TURNS.............................FULL POWER
CARB HEAT .............................45 DEGREE STEEP TURN...................HOLD NOSE LEVEL
PWR TO 1700.............................CARB HEAT/YOKE BACK................R-RUDDER-HOLD HDG
HOLD HDG. & ALT..................REDUCE PWR/YOKE BACK..............FLAPS UP 20
WHITE ARC .............................REDUCE PWR/YOKE BACK..............MILK BELOW 50 KTS
FULL FLAPS..............................REDUCE PWR/YOKE BACK..............60-65 KTS
HOLD HDG. & ALT..................PWR OFF/YOKE FULL BACK...........FLAPS UP
20 DEGREE L-R BANK.............IF ANY LOSS OF ALT.........................CLIMB 75 KTS
HOLD ALTITUDE....................START OVER .......................................R-RUDDER-HOLD HDG.
BUFFET OR STALL.................BUFFET OR STALL.............................YOKE FORWARD
.....................................................USE AILERONS TO LEVEL
.....................................................LEVEL WINGS
.......................................(Not FAA required)

----------------------------EMERGENCY-------------------------------
1. CHECKLIST...................6. RESTART 8. PRECRASH.....................9. 121.5/7700
2. BEST GLIDE...................7. FUEL................BELTS/HARNESS.................WORDS X 3
3. HOLD NOSE UP................SELECTOR......DOORS-CRACK..........10. FLY TO FIELD
4. 5 FULL TRIM DOWN......GAUGES..........FUEL OFF.....................11. FLAPS-FIELD MADE
5. FIELD AND WIND..........MIXTURE........ELECT-OFF..................12. FULL STALL
....70 KTS...............................MAGNETOS

...........SOFT FIELD PROCEDURES............................SHORT FIELD PROCEDURES
..........TAKEOFF...................LANDING.......................TAKEOFF............................LANDING
10 DEGREE FLAPS...............60 KTS/1500 RPM............ROLLING or .....................FINAL 60 KTS
YOKE WELL BACK ............FULL FLAPS.................... LOCKED BRAKE.............FULL FLAPS
KEEP IT ROLLING................FLARE LEVEL 60 KTS.....FULL POWER..................1500 RPM 60 KTS
RWY HDG-FULL POWER...REDUCE POWER -OFF...HOLD LEVEL....................AIM SHORT
MAX. ANGLE LIFTOFF......RAISE NOSE-MORE.........ROTATE 50-55................ROTATE SHARP
R-RUDDER-HOLD HDG......HOLD OFF RWY................CLIMB 60 KTS................POWER BACK
STAY CLOSE TO GRND......PWR 1200 RPM ................10 COUNT 50' .................FLAPS UP
LWR NOSE-SPEED UP........NOSE HIGH.........................CLIMB 75 KTS ................DON'T LOCK BRKS
75 KTS CLIMB.....................MAIN GEAR TCHDWN.....200' FLAPS UP.................FLAPS UP
CLIMB 75 KTS ....................HOLD YOKE BACKKK......TRIM

GO AROUND #1 GO AROUND #2
SPEED 60 KTS UP.....................SPEED BELOW 60 KTS
FULL POWER/CH OFF............FULL POWER/CH OFF
FLAPS UP..................................MILK FLAPS UP 20 DEGREES
CLIMB ATTITUDE...................HOLD LEVEL/ACCELERATE
R RUDDER/TRIM.....................AT 75 KTS CLIMB
LOCK ELBOW ON DOOR.......R RUDDER/TRIM
CLIMB 75 KTS..........................LOCK ELBOW ON DOOR

FROM CRUISE LEVEL....................................................FROM CRUSE LEVEL
TO LEVEL 90 KTS.........FROM LEVEL 90 KTS...........TO CLIMB 90 KTS
CH POWER 1700...........TO DESCENT 90 KTS............SET ATTITUDE
1 TRIM DOWN..............POWER TO 1700....................FULL POWER
POWER 2200..................FINE TRIM..............................1 TRIM DOWN
FINE TRIM........................................................................FINE TRIM

SHORT APPROACH ......................SHORT-SHORT APPROACH
Abeam numbers....................Abeam numbers
C.H./1500 RPM..................................C.. H. POWER OFF
FULL FLAPS......................................FULL FLAPS
Fine trim 60 kts......................IMMEDIATE TURN TO BASE
BASE TURN 45 DEGREES...........Fine trim for 60 kts

------------SPIN RECOVERY-----------:
Spin recovery in a C-172 should procede as follows:
POWER OFF...................DIRECTION OF SPIN-TURN COORDINATOR
AILERONS NEUTRAL
FLAPS UP........................OPPOSITE RUDDER
YOKE FORWARD.........GENTLE RECOVERY
LEVEL/CLIMB

Recovery technique for inverted spin :
1) Controls- Positively neutralize
2) PCL (Power and Condition Lever)- Idle
3) Altitude- Check bailout altitude.
4) AOA, airspeed, turn needle- check for spin indications
5. Airspeed stabilized between 80 and 100kias.
6. Turn needle fully deflected in direction of turn.
7. Inverted spin indications will be AOA near minimum at 2-3
8. Airspeed 0
9. Turn needle fully deflected in direction of turn.

Recovery from steady state spin:
1) Gear and Flaps- Up
2) Rudder- full deflection opposite turn needle (erect or inverted)
3) Yoke - forward of neutral (erect) or neutral (inverted)
When rotation stops:
1) Controls- positively neutralize
Recover from unusual attitude.
Inverted spins cause pilots to use the wrong rudder.

C-172 Checklists
This is a first edition Checklist...four more to come...
PRE-FLIGHT CHECKLIST
1. Chain, Doors, Key on Floor
2. Log book - RPM/Hobbes, Fill Out
3. Battery Switch, Check Fuel Gauges, "Clear Flaps", Flaps Down
4. Battery Switch Off, Control Lock Off
5. Sump Cup - Tank Sump Check, Cup to Right Seat
6. Wing-Control Lever, Flap, Fuselage, Antennas, Empennage,
Luggage Door, Wheel
7. Leading Edge Horiz. Stabilizer, Movement in Hinge Pin
8. Elevator, Unchain, Hinge Pins - Counter Bal. in Rudder
9. RT Elevator, Trim Position - Neutral?
10. RT Side Fuselage, Back of Flap, Aileron-Top & Bottom, Counterbal., RT-Leading Edge
11. RT Chain, RT Tank Sump, Wheel, RT Tank Fuel/Cap, Oil (6+ QTS C-150-4+QTS), Drain Fuel Sump, Nose Wheel/Dampener, Clean Strut, Alt. Belt ½", Leading Edge Prop., Air Intake, Roll Plane 40"-Check Tires, Static Airhole, Pitot Tube, Stall Warner, Tank Fuel/Filler Cap

GROUND OPN'S/PRE-START CHECKLIST
1. Seats, Belts, Doors, Windows
2. Radios #1 Set 124.7 - ATIS
3. Radios #2 Set 121.9 - Ground, 119.7 - Tower, X-Ponder 1200
4. Key In
5. Check Trim
6. Carb. Heat Cold
7. Mixture Rich
8. Prime Pump (2 times if cold), NOT Throttle
9. Master On
10. Hold Brakes
11. Throttle ¼", (172-1/8")
12. "Clear"
13. Start 800 RPM
14. Close Window (right hand)
15. Radio On (Listen to ATIS), Xponder-on
16. Flaps Up
17. Lean Mix ½"
18. Beacon On
19. Check Oil Pressure
20. Amps
21. Copy ATIS
TAXI CHECKLIST

1. Brake Check, Call Ground Control, 800 RPM to 1,200 RPM. Note Wind Direction - Climb Into Headwind, Dive Away From Tailwind, Follow Yellow Line

RUNUP CHECKLIST
1. Turn Into Wind, Check Controls - Aileron, Rudder, Yoke (elevator)
2. Fuel Mixture (rich), Fingernail - Throttle Check 800 RPM-1700 RPM
3. Magneto Check 1-2, 1-2, 1,1
4. Carb. Heat - Check Drop in RPM
5. Check Amp. Meter, Suction 4-5
6. Throttle Back 1700 to 800, Set Heading, Set Altimeter, X-Ponder/Radio Check
7. Dry Run Radio Call to Tower
8. Discuss Taxing, Clearing Turn, Climb Out Departure Plan

PRE-TAKEOFF CHECKLIST
1. Flap Set
2. 1st Checkpoint, Time Check, Course
3. Trim Set
4. Transponder Activated
5. Scan Gauges, Instruments
6. Aircraft Area Cleared - Look Around
7. Emergency Checklist Displayed
8. Freq - Radio Checked - Call Tower
TAKEOFF CHECKLIST
1. Clear Runway, Turn Toward Final Course/Base Leg Before Entering Runway
2. Rear Yoke, Full Power, 55 Kts Lift Off, Slight Nose Drop Till 65 Kts
3. Check Trim
4. 300-400 AGL - Check Runway Alignment
PRE-LANDING CHECKLIST
1. Fuel-Selector Mixture Gauges
2. Carb. Heat
3. Landing Lights
FUEL REQUEST
1. Radio - 122.95
2. Texaco Open 0700
3. "PSA Unicom Cessna 1407U Over" Navajo-Chevron
4. NRI Has A/C w/All Fuel Vendors
5. Read Plane space - Golf #6, At Nose Wheel
SHUTDOWN CHECKLIST
1. Radio 121.5 - Emergency Monitor
2. Radio Master Off, All Electrical Off
3. Master Switch Off
4. Magneto Check
5. Lean Out, Key Out - Floor
6. Control Lock In
7. Log Time
8. Heat Shields
9. Tie Down Plane
10. Lock Plane
EMERGENCY CHECKLIST
1. Checklist (4 down w/ Power Off)
2. Airspeed / Trim for 60 Kts (3 down from Cruise)
3. Find Field and Wind Direction
4. Restart
- Check Fuel Gauges, Mixture, Selector, Primer in
- Key Position On
- Carb. Heat On
5. Radio - 121.5
6. Transponder 7700
7. Mayday X3, Cessna .. X3, Position X3, Problem X3, Intentions X3
8. Pre-Crash - Fuel Off, Open Doors, Tighten Belts, Turn Off Electrical

C-152/172 Checklist
Preflight

Control locks
Time log sheet/squawks
Pad/pencil/frequencies
Sun Shades
Master
flaps
gauges
prime
beacon
lights
Stall warner
All switches
Master off
Set trim
Fuel tester
Rag/paper towel
NOTHING FURTHER ON PREFLIGHT????

Cockpit
Headsets/intercom
Key
Seats/Belts/Doors,
Charts
Prestart
Com/Navs set
Xponder
Breakers
Mixture
Carb Heat
Prime (By priming prior to pre-start you give fuel fumes a chance
Throttle to circulate to all cylinders)
Brakes
Start
Master
"Clear"
Start
Radio
Beacon
Mixture
Flaps
Oil pressure
Suction/Amps
ATIS
Altimeter/Heading indicator (A must if you want to taxi correctly)
Taxi
Brakes
Ailerons for wind
Runup
Brakes
Controls
Mixture
1700 rpm
Mags, CH
Suction Amps
Idle check

Before takeoff
Instrument check
x-ponder, strobes
landing light
Carb Heat (off)
Mixture
Primer
Fuel gauges
Flaps/Trim
Doors/belts
Time

Climbing through 1000'
Landing light off
Cruise
Mixture
Heading Indicator set
Prelanding
ATIS
Carb Heat
Engine check
HI set
GUMPS
Post landing
Flaps
Carb Heat
Mixture
X-ponder/strobes
Landing list
Ailerons for taxi

Shutdown
121.5
All electrical
Master
Mixture
Key out
Lockup
Tiedowns
Control lock
time log
Headsets/intercom
Clean cockpit
belt
Shades

C-150/172 Checklist
PREFLIGHT
TIME LOG SHEET
CONTROL LOCK
RADIO / LIGHTS OFF
EMPENNAGE
TIE DOWN
FLAPS DOWN
SURFACES / HINGES
MASTER ON
FUEL GAUGES
RIGHT FUSELAGE
LIGHTS (NIGHT)
MASTER OFF
IGNITION OFF
FUEL SELECTOR TIE DOWN
TRIM STRUT
ENGINE DRAIN FUEL
OIL (4-6) (5 XC) BRAKE / LINE / FARING
DRAIN SUMP FLAP / AILERON
ACCESSORIES TIP / LIGHT
SECURE HATCH LEADING EDGE / BOTTOM
NOSE WHEEL FUEL (VISUAL) CAP
NOSE WHEEL CHOCK
ALL CHAINS / CHOCKS
STRUT
ROLL TIRES
FARING
PROPELLER
AIR FILTER / LIGHT

PRESTART
SEAT BELTS (LAP / SHOULDER)
LEFT WING DOORS / VENTS
FUEL (VISUAL) CAP RADIOS / LIGHTS OFF
STATIC PORT MASTER OFF
PITOT / OVERFLOW MIXTURE RICH
TIE DOWN PRIME / THROTTLE 1/4 INCH
STRUT CARB HEAT OFF
DRAIN FUEL BRAKE ON
BRAKE / LINE / FARING
STALL WARNER
LEADING EDGE / BOTTOM
TIP & LIGHT START
AILERON & FLAP MASTER ON
IGNITION BOTH
"CLEAR"
START
RADIO ON
TAXI FLAPS UP
MINIMUM BRAKING OIL PRESSURE
800 RPM BEACON / LIGHTS
AILERON / ELEVATOR
FOR WIND
RUN UP PRE LANDING
CONTROL SURFACES FUEL
1700 RPM MIXTURE RICH
RIGHT / LEFT MAGS ENGINE INSTRUMENTS
CARB HEAT FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS SHUT DOWN
SUCTION 4.6 / 5.4 CARB HEAT RADIOS/LIGHTS OFF
800 RPM Go-Around Procedure MASTER OFF
INSTRUMENTS / GAUGES POST LANDING MIXTURE LEAN
RADIO SET FLAPS UP THROTTLE RETARDED
CARB HEAT IGNITION OFF
CONTROL LOCK
TIME LOG SHEET

ANOTHER CHECKLIST
PREFLIGHT
RUDDER TRIM TAB
L CHAIN VOR, COM ANT
KEY FLOOR STATIC AIR
LOG BOOK WING TIP
YOKE UNLOCK LINK/PIANO HNG
MSTR ON ACT ARM
FUEL/GAUGES R CHAIN
'CLEAR FLAPS' R GAS/COLOR
LWR FLAPS OIL
MSTR OFF SHIMMY
L GAS/COLOR BLADE
LINK/PIANO HNG PULL PLANE
LUGGAGE CHK TIRES
ELT PUSH BACK
ELEVATOR STALL HORN
REAR CHAIN WING TIP

START
BELTS MSTR RADIO ON
KEY IN ATIS
MSTR ON TRIM - TAKEOFF
MIX IN BEACON/NAV/LAND
PRIME 'CCR GROUND'
THROTTLE FLAPS UP
'CLEAR' SET HDNG INDICATOR
LEAN YOKE FOR WIND
REAR CHAIN WING TIP

RUN-UP
YOKE, ELEVATOR, RUDDER
MIX IN
THROTTLE 1700
MAGS 1-2,1-2,1-1
CARB, SUCTION, AMPS
FUSES, GAUGES
PWR 800
SET INSTRUMENTS
HEADING, ALTIMETER
RADIO
'CCR TOWER'

TAKEOFF
TURN TO SEE TRAFFIC
THROTTLE FULL
YOKE BACK
NEXT CHECKLIST

AFTER TAKEOFF
ON COURSE
ENGINE OPERATION
AIRSPEED
FLAPS/GEAR
FREQUENCIES
EMERGENCY CHKLIST

PRELAND
ATIS
'CCR TOWER"
PATTERN ALT
DOWNWIND
PRELAND CHK
CARB PULL
PWR 1500/1700
TRIM DOWN 3
FLAPS DWN 4 SEC
TRIM UP 1
S60 KTS
TURN BASE
FLAPS DOWN 4 SEC
TRIM UP 1
TURN FINAL
FLAP FULL
TRIM UP 1
60 KTS
YOKE BACK
Go-Around Procedure

POST LAND SHUTDOWN
CARB IN RADIO 121.5 KEY OFF/FLOOR
ADJUST TRIM RADIO OFF YOKE LOCK
'CCR GROUND" LIGHTS OFF LOG TIME
LEAN MSTR OFF DOUBLE CHECK ALL
TAXI 800 RPM PULL MIX CHAINS/DOORS
YOKE FOR WIND

EMERGENCY
BEST GLIDE
FIELD / WIND
RESTART
FUEL/MIX GAUGES
121.5 / 77OO
BELTS
3X MAYDAY
3X AIRCRAFT IDENT
3X ENGINE FAILURE
3X LANDING
Tighten Belts
TURN FINAL, FLAPS FULL
TRIM
FUEL/ELECTRIC OFF
CRACK DOORS
Aircraft Basic Knowledge Sheet
Dimensions: Height_____ Length_____Wingspan_____ Propeller_____Tires_____
Full fuel_____Grade_____POH endurance______TRUE endurance_____
Oil type_____Maximum_____Minimum______
Cockpit l switches, knobs, lights and sounds:
Gross weight _____Empty weight_____Full Fuel weight_____Cockpit load available_____CG Range_______
Speeds: Va_____Vx____Vy____Vfe____ Vne____Vno____Vg____
Gross aircraft performance parameters in standard conditions:
Normal-Speed____
S.L. takeoff_____Over obstacle_____ Landing______ Over obstacle______Configuration ______________
Procedures
Short field-Speed____ Takeoff___Over obstacle ___Landing_____Over obstacle______Configuration_________
Soft field-Speed____ Takeoff___ Over obstacle___Landing_____Over Obstacle______Configuration__________
Density Altitude Performance at Gross
Conditions: Level Cruise a 65% power, 7500' Standard Temperature.
True air speed______Fuel used____per hour
Takeoff at Gross Weight, 5000' 100 F, over obstacle Ground run______Rate of Climb_____ Total distance to 50'

No Trim Landing System (Used by Cessna FBO)
I would like first to hear how you would presently fly a C-172 around from takeoff through a touch and go and around again to a full stop. I will need the power settings you use, where any reductions occur and how and when you add flaps as well as the when and amount of trim changes as they occur.

The year and model of the C-172 would be helpful as well. Johnson bar flaps, cuffed leading edge wing, flap indent switch or free standing would make some differences as well. Power of engine will make some (minor) difference.

It would be helpful if you were to give me the pattern altitude AGL you fly the at, as well as at that point you begin your descent for normal full flap landings. Do you slip with flaps? Do you put in flaps during a turn and slip at the same time? What is your approach speed, over-the-fence speed, touchdown speed and post touchdown procedure.

It would be nice to know if you have ever had the airspeed indicator back against the stop. How do you go to slow-flight, minimum controllable and recoveries? Power changes, trim changes (if any) and when made. Do you make a practice of flying hands-off, rudder only and how do you usually hold the yoke when using your hand.

About the trim, do you pinch the wheel or use a finger-tip? Have you ever been taught the engineering relationship between the amount of trim and flap settings? What you know and don't know will make all the difference in any explanation regarding why the no-trim method of pattern flying a Cessna, while possible, unique, and suitable as a demonstration of capability, is NOT the way a pilot should be taught. The learning law of primacy would be the greatest single reason against it. Incidentally, you have been given a flap emergency on short final, haven't you?

C-172 Accident Rate
The 100,00 flight-hour accident rate is .56. 17% of all aircraft are C-172s while accounting for only 6% of the accidents. The safety record of mid-age aircraft is better than older or newer C-172s. In the two most recent years there has been only one fatal accident attributed to engine failure (valve).

The safety record would be phenomenal if VFR into IFR, failure to maintain altitude and stall related maneuvers were eliminated. l5% of C-172 accidents occur during a go-around. This is probably because the instinctive tendency in a go-around is to gain altitude rather than airspeed. Retraction of flaps too soon, too quickly are a source of trouble. Wind causes 10% of non-fatal accidents. 20% of the non-fatal accidents were under instructional conditions.

Any C-172 landing that gets on the ground in a landing attitude has an excellent occupant survival rate. If we were able to count only non-stupid accidents, the C-172 would have an accident rate lower than that of turbo jets.

Calibrated vs. Indicated Airspeeds
Full Flap Configuration of C-172
CAS 49 55 63 72 81 90 100
IAS 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

1. For landings the 1.3 x Vso is based on calibrated speed.
2. Landing approach speeds are based on maximum gross weight. (Never can happen unless takeoff is over gross weight)
3. Stall speed decreases by the square root of the actual flight weight.
4. A C-172 going 5-knots over Vref speed during flare will float 25% further than it would at Vref.
5. Finding the best glide speed for Vref (actual weight)
a. How much useful altitude do you have?
b. You must plan for one-thousand five-hundred abeam your selected numbers.
c. Above 6000' AGL consider stopping the propeller and losing some initial altitude.
The initial loss of altitude will be paid back by reduced drag and better glide ratio.
d. Use the GPS to work out a best glide table for your particular aircraft.
e. A 15-knot headwind will cost you 20% of range
f. A 3-knot wind will cost you twice as much.
g. You will need 3000' of altitude to reach an airport 5 miles away.
h. Circling within one mile of an airport should keep you clear of obstacles.

C-172 is POHed to glide at an 8:1 ratio. Fact is it is closer to 10:1 but work out ratios with GPS. POH best glide speed is 73 knots at gross. From 12,000 feet you can expect to glide for almost 15 miles. You will descent about 980 fpm over a time of almost eleven minutes. A 15-knot headwind will lose you three miles of distance, at 30-knots you lose over five miles for a distance of less than eight miles.

C-172
90 mph is only correct for maximum gross weight and sea level. With a gross weight of 1700 instead of 2300 pounds Vy is 82 mph at sea level, at 15.000 ft it is even reduced to 64 mph (well, I never knew, that a 172 could reach 15.000 feet - but it's in the POH).

IFR Performance
Phase RPM Attitude Configured Performance
Climb full +2 bars clean 90 kts 700 fpm
Climb full +1 bar clean 100 kts 500 fpm
Cruise 2450 even clean 105 kts level
Descent 2450 -1 bar clean 110 kts level
LoCruise 2200 even clean 90 kts level
Desent from FAF 1700 +1 bar clean 90 kts +1 trim
MDA 2200 even 10 dgs 90 kts no chng

Fuel Consumption
These are very conservative and you should run fuel consumption checks every time you fly until you learn your aircraft. I once flew my C-172 for 3.3 hours from Concord, CA to Elko, NV.
I had six gallons when I landed. Never again did I fly over three hours without a fuel stop.
Climb 150/10 = 15 Gph Leaned 10
Cruise 90/10 = 9 gph Leaned 8.3
Descent 50/10 = 5gph Leaned 4.5

How to land a 172.
1. The power-on, 1500 rpm approach, is done by adding flaps incrementally at different parts of the pattern.
2. Fly a fairly tight pattern.
3. Reduce power abeam the numbers to about 1700rpm and allow to bleed off to 1500. Hold heading and altitude
4. Add 10 degrees of flap and turn base. This gives me about 80 kts and about 400 fpm descent rate.
5. Power is left alone
6. Add flaps to 20 on base if high.
7. Wait till turning final if the approach angle looks all right.
8. On final, after adding flaps as required, try to continue the 400 fpm or so descent, and gradually reduce power to control glide slope.
9. Maintain the recommended 60kts.
10. When over the threshold, begin slowly to reduce power.
11. Cover the far end of the runway with the nose of the aircraft and slowly reduce power to off just at touchdown.
## There are other ways of doing it, 

C-172 Speeds
Vr (Rotate Speed) = 55kts
Vx (Best angle of climb) = 59kts or 65kts ?
Vx with 10 flaps = 59kts or 65kts ?
Vy (Best rate of climb) = 75kts?

Pattern speed = 90kts ?
Final approach speed = 60kts ?
Flaps on final = 20 or 30 or 40 ?
Short field approach speed = ?

Short field takeoff procedure (flaps, climb speed, etc) = ?
Soft field takeoff procedure (flaps, climb speed, etc) = ?

Power off, no flaps, at 65K best glide, you have about 9 to 1 glide ratio, which is 730 ft/min descent or a 6.3 degree glideslope. The normal power approach is a 3 degree, 19 to 1 glide ratio and at 65K is a 346 ft/min descent rate.

C-172 Emergency Turn
T
ry the C172 quick 180 turn0around by of slowing to minimum controllable airspeed with full 40 deg flaps and full power. Quickly apply left full rudder and bank sharply to spin around on a wingtip to go the other way in a tight space? This will turn the aircraft around in the air like that in a small horizontal area and lose only 50 feet of altitude.

Cessna Landings
A Cessna full flap landing at a faster than recommended approach speed is going to have its nose well down and in need of a very smooth increase in pitch change to avoid a severe balloon and yet sufficient to avoid a nosewheel first touchdown. Excess speed in a full-flap Cessna landing requires considerable skill (luck) to turn the flare into enough float for a normal tail-low landing.

Any Cessna landing made with excess speed is an opening for loss of directional control when on the ground. When such a landing results in an accident it is because of the pilots failure to use all of the control available correctly. Unfortunately, this is not a procedure that is readily available to practice. You can be prepared to use all the control available by having your seat set forward and up so you can get full rudder application.
Too much airspeed will cause the flare to balloon and/or float. The instinctive reaction to a balloon is the
lower the nose. On noting the nose wheel is going to touch down before the mains, the pilot pulls back and we get into a pilot induced oscillation series of increasing severe ground contact. The go-around performed early on is the best solution. Excess speed in the approach must be used before a satisfactory landing is to be expected. Every excess knot becomes a multiplier of required landing distance. Excess speed is also a gross multiplier of errors of control or judgment. Every error will be magnified by the excess airspeed.

Landing a C-172 (Opinion)
Find a number; for power (maybe 1500/1800 rpm ) in a 172; for flaps (maybe 10 deg on downwind, 20 on base and 30 on short final. and for descent 500fpm is convenient because it is a good compromise for the approach speed, oh yeah speed.. For speed find out what the power setting gives you at the descent you want and then leave the power alone add drag with flaps and reduce power when the runway is made.

Start with 1800 rpm for a set up and reduce power on each attempt until you find the setting that works. Refrain from using the power to make adjustments in the pattern while practicing this and accept whatever results you get, then make adjustments on the next attempt. Obviously this will not be very enlightening if you practice in gusty or wind shear conditions. The important thing to gain from this exercise is an understanding of the effects of the relationship between attitude, power, and configuration on the aircraft. I you are successful you will be able to set the power and add drag throughout the landing sequence to control the descent. This will enable you to maintain power throughout the approach and not get caught pushing and pulling power to effect descent and speed and consequently getting caught low with power off and needing to add throttle to make the runway etc.

By the way, this works great for short field landings. For practice, start on a longer final , to get used to the slower speed and configuration , maintain your last power setting until stable with full flaps, and reduce power in stages to find your final short approach airspeed and descent. Happy Flying
R.Wallace CFIAIM

C-172 as an Investment
A C-172 is always a good investment if there is no corrosion. Parts are easy to locate and mechanics know how to work on them.

As Engineered C-172 Landing and Takeoff

YOU WILL BECOME A BELIEVER IF YOU DO THIS AT ALTITUDE before doing it in the pattern. If you are a pinch-trimmer you will never be able to benefit from the built in design of the Cessna

Starting from level cruise as on downwind abeam the runway numbers reduce the power to 1700 rpm. If you will get your forefinger behind the top most visible button of the trim wheel and turn the trim wheel as far down as you can while pivoting the wrist get a full movement of the wheel. Do that three times and the excellent Cessna design will do the rest.

Pinch the wheel and you will always be one button short or three total buttons short if pinching three times. Hard to explain but easy to prove. If you don't believe me try it both ways to see the difference

At Altitude;
In C-172 from level cruise as on downwind and abeam the numbers, pull power to 1700 rpm, hold heading and altitude with yoke and using the finger tip method of trimming, put in three full turns of nose up trim. Power will bleed to 1500 rpm. Aircraft will fly level and slow to 70 knots.

At 70 knots put in 10 degrees of flap speed of descent will slow to 60 knots, take off one full finger-tip turn of trim and speed will return to 70. Now clean up, climb and start over but doing the flaps and trim one right after the other and before allowing any airspeed change as explained next.

Hold some forward pressure on yoke while putting in the ten-degrees of flap and take off the turn of trim while holding 70 the plane will continue to descend at 70 hands-off.

On base go to 20-degrees of flap while holding 70 and take off a turn of trim and you will be descending at 70. On turning final put in the rest of the flaps and aircraft will slow to 60 knots your final approach speed. Different aircraft and loadings may reqire slight changes.

Seeing as how the C-150 and C-172 both have an engineered trim/flap relationship I have found some specifics useful.

Assume every landing approach is made with full-flaps and partial power until just before touchdown. Trimmed hands off for 60 knots. On touchdown flaps are removed. The C-150 is now trimmed for level flight. The C-172 is trimmed for Vy climb of 75 knots.

On a go-around the C-150 the basic trainer is trimmed level on the initial application of go-around .power and will fly level when flaps are removed and nose must be raised and one full nose up trim is required for hands-off Vy climb.

On a go-around the C-172 the instrument trainer is already trimmed for Vy climb and removal of flaps will give you that climb hands-off. However, you should fly in ground effect while removing flaps before allowing the nose to pitch up.

Single Tank above 5000'
In a Cessna 172G, why does the POH state to switch to single tank operation when at 5000 feet or higher?

There are multiple fuel lines that can feed the engine when set to BOTH. Switching to a single tank increases the fuel flow through whatever line you select, and this avoids vapor lock, which is more likely at higher altitudes and slower fuel flow rates.

Here's the AD, although it doesn't give much info -
AD 72-07-02 - Selector valve placard, effective 03/25/72.Applies to all Cessna 172's, through 1970 172K s/n 17258855.
"To reduce the possibility of engine power interruption at altitudes above 5000 feet caused by vapor formation in the fuel lines, accomplish the following:
(a) Effective now, the airplane must be operated on a single fuel tank immediately upon reaching cruise altitudes above5000 feet.
(B) On or before April 1, 1972, install at the fuel selector valve applicable Cessna placards P/N's 0509021-1, -2 or 3 as provided with Cessna Service Letter SE72-7, dated March 17, 1972, or any FAA-approved equivalent placard which reads as follows: SWITCH TO SINGLE TANK OPERATION IMMEDIATELY UPON REACHING CRUISE ALTITUDES ABOVE 5000 FEET.
(C) Compliance with the provisions of Paragraphs A and B is no longer required when the fuel system has been modified by the installation of applicable Cessna Kit No. SK172-31B or
SK172-32 referenced by Cessna Service Letter SE72-7, dated March 17, 1972, or by the accomplishment of any equivalent method approved by the Chief, Engineering and Manufacturing
Branch, FAA, Central Region."

Investigation and found that a few Cessnas made unscheduled landings with the engine stopped with a lot of fuel left in the tanks. It seemed that when the engine started to run rough, carb heat did nothing, so that was ruled out. Ten minutes on the ground and the airplane fired right back up.

Since everybody that landed did so with tanks on "both", the surmise (never proven) was that an air bubble (vapor lock) formed in the line from the tank to the fuel selector valve and blocked fuel flow. Since the other line had not been flowing fuel, the odds of an air bubble in the "off" tank is near zero, and so the AD came out.

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