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All about Go-Arounds
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Contents
PTS Go-around; Landing Expectancy; ...Go-Around and Why; ...Go-Around Procedure; ...Go-Around Preparation; ....Go-Around and Flare; ...What Makes the Go-around a Problem; ...Why Accidents are Related to the Go-Around; ...Go-around Carburetor Heat;...Making the Go-around Safe; ...Go-Around Simulations; ...Go-Around & Low Approach; ...Go-Around Lesson; ...Go-around Flaps; ...Go-Around Hazards; ...Special Circumstances; ...Go-Around Practice; ...All Phases of the Go-around; ...Reasons the Go-Around is Difficult; ...Planning the Go-around Lesson, Go-Around Instruction; Avoiding the Hazards of the Go-Around; Training for the Unexpected Go-Around Go-Around Mantra; When to Make a Go-around; Three Problem Areas; ...Win One for the Gipper; ...

PTS Go-Around
1.
Knows elements required in go-around
2. Makes timely decisions
3. Applies full power and sets pitch attitude according to airspeed
4. Retracts and sets flaps.
5. Gear
6. Climbs and transitions as required
7. Directional and drift control
8. Noise abatement procedures
9. Flies pattern
10.Completes checklist.

Landing Expectancy
After many successful landings the go-around proficiency decays and you anticipate every approach results in a landing. There is a tremendous change in expectation and outcome when a landing changes to a go-around. There is a safety boundary between the two that becomes more and more narrow with experience. The successful pilot soon loses sight of the go-around as a safety maneuver.

When do you go-around? Anytime, for whatever reason, if you feel uncomfortable about any aspect of the landing procedure. On approach if you feel too high, low, fast, or slow. In the flare if not straight, ballooning, high, bouncing, slow or fast. the go-around is an exercise of judgment. The student should never try to save a landing. Go-around. Do not use the radio. Over a real or imaginary runway continue straight until reaching the departure end of the runway and a safe/noise abatement altitude before turning.

The pilot who is not prepared for the go-around may be unintentionally preparing for an accident. Being hesitant in making the go-around is just as likely to precipitate an accident, as is a poor landing. The go-around is the 'Hail Mary' of landing procedures. It is as aggressive a maneuver as the non-aerobic pilot is going to make. Get in full power and accept a loss of altitude if needed to regain flying and climb speed. Simulated go-arounds can never create the experience of the visual and unnerving ground rising to meet you.

Go-Around and Why
When do you go-around? Anytime, for whatever reason, if you feel uncomfortable about any aspect of the landing procedure. On approach if you feel too high, low, fast, or slow. In the flare if not straight, ballooning, high, bouncing, slow or fast. The go-around is an exercise of judgment. The student should never try to save a landing. Go-around. Do not use the radio. Over a real or imaginary runway continue straight until reaching the departure end of the runway and a safe/noise abatement altitude before turning.

The earlier you go-around the better. This is an action deemed necessary to correct control, approach, flare, or rollout problems. Altitude allows some trade off for airspeed. The lower the go-around the more difficult it may seem but this is not necessarily so. You have less distance to fall in a stall the closer to the ground you are. This is because flight within ground effect requires less power for a given performance. The aircraft can fly close to the ground even with full flaps. In ground effect the partial removal of flaps is less likely to cause a stall. There is more excess power in ground effect so that more acceleration can occur as the flaps are removed.

The go-around should be a smooth transition from a landing situation into takeoff configuration. Stop landing, start climbing. The go-around usually is initiated for instructional purposes, traffic, lack of aircraft control, weather or surface conditions. The go- around is essentially a takeoff with full flaps. You must have practiced at altitude so that you know ahead of time, which pressures to anticipate as flaps are retracted, and you maintain level flight. Flap retraction must be carefully controlled because most training aircraft have little excess power.

The successful go-around is predicated on the pilot's understanding of required planning, setting aircraft attitude, cleaning up the configuration, and use of power. The greatest enemy of planning is any form of delay, procrastination or hesitation. The delayed go-around greatly increases the plucker factor. The proximity to the ground should not do this but it does. Actually, the ground proximity should rightly be considered an asset. Ground effect, properly used, greatly enhances the ability of the aircraft to avoid the ground, accelerate and climb. Most often go-around accidents are the result of premature and unintentional climbs at low airspeeds. Airspeed is money in the bank. Get the airspeed up with full SMOOTH power, a level attitude or slight dive held against the power and flap effort to raise the nose, and get off the flaps slowly until reaching climb speed. The best go-around is a precision control maneuver when done properly. Every move is done in anticipation of what you know will come next. If you don't know, learn. A pilot's reliability factor can well be measured by the smoothness with which a go-around is performed.

Knowing how to evaluate whether you're prepared to make any specific approach is one of the more difficult flight operations. Failure to go-around soon enough is a factor of attitude. A delay in initiating a go-around is most apt to result in an incident/accident.

Accidents that are subsequent to initiation of a go-around are reflective of late decision, poor attitude control, airspeed and heading problems and a flight path leading to an obstacle. Making a go-around from a touchdown past the mid-point of the runway may be too late. You are more likely to survive a slower contact with an obstacle on the ground than a higher speed uncontrolled contact from the air. Ground looping will use the aircraft structure to take the initial shock of impact.

The Flight Safety Foundation has found that pilots fail to recognize an unsalvageable approach in time to initiate a safe go-around. The go-around, if not always a part of your expectations, requires an instant change of procedure. If the procedure is not known as a first learned process then the mental and physical coordination must be performed at a more conscious level. Although the go-around is most usually begun relatively low to the ground, this need not be the case. If things are not right on the downwind you can begin there and just fly the pattern at altitude. Regardless of the aircraft the fundamentals of the go-around are the same; power, airspeed, re-configure, climb. The go-around is not an item for discussion. At the first idea of a go-around, it is time.

The go-around requires a sudden switch in mental awareness. Instead of going down we must begin a reversal of process and thinking. The areas of importance change, first things now become last things. Full power, accelerate in level flight to climb speed, clean up flaps, climb attitude, and trim.

Go-Around Procedure
The generic go around has the following sequence:
1. Smoothly to full power (including carburetor heat #2)
2. Pitch initially to level for acceleration as...
3. Flaps removed by increments or milking according to speed and rate of acceleration.
4. Pitch and trim for climb reaching Vx or Vy as required.

A safe go-around can be accomplished at any altitude if the initial effort is just to stay at altitude while power and configuration is adjusted to allow a climb. A common fault is attempting to climb before the aircraft is capable of climbing. Have a go-around plan and fly the plan.

"Go-around". Apply full throttle smoothly but rapidly then carb heat. Anticipate the yoke and rudder applications that will be required by your airspeed and configuration. The "go-around" is one of the best safety procedures in flying. If you are not positioned for a safe landing, go-around. Full power in the go-around increases the airflow over the wing. With flaps extended the power application causes the nose to pitch up abruptly. This must be anticipated!! Hold forward pressure on the yoke to prevent pitching up. (I suggest pressing the arm against the door to provide a locked position.) 

Fly the airplane is # 1. The go-around is not an emergency, it is a standard procedure even if the FAA says it is considered an emergency procedure. The go-around is a precautionary option. Properly performed it is neither difficult or of any particular hazard. You don't need to tell the tower anything until they ask your intentions. A go-around should be made any time there is a significant deviation from intentions to land or a requirement for radical maneuvering. A go-around is a 'sound' controlled maneuver. Listen for the sound of full power, acceleration, Vy, and climb.

Keep your eyes outside during the go-around. Keep the aircraft coordinated and in a pre-selected direction. Apply full power smoothly, remove carburetor heat, anticipate torque, P-factor, and slipstream with right rudder. Keep the aircraft level with a locked elbow and remove the flaps judiciously with reference to your airspeed and altitude. There is no hurry. Accelerate to 65 Kts (C-150), trim for climb and set the pitch attitude that will maintain a Vy climb. Now, you can look at your instruments.

There are several common faults typical to the go-around. Most problems occur when power is first added and before flaps are raised. The student's eyes should be focused outside the airplane on the nose attitude of the aircraft. Learn to locate the flap switch by feel. No trim is required. The aircraft must be kept level. The student must lock the elbow on the door. The application of full power with flaps will tend to cause a rapid nose pitch up. P-factor will cause the nose to turn to the left so right rudder pressure must be anticipated. The nose must be held down or there will be a loss of airspeed. This will require locking the arm on the door and a full palm pressure forward. The pitch-up and left turning of the nose must be anticipated and corrected before it occurs. Apply throttle BEFORE carb heat. If you are having a problem you probably forgot to milk up the flaps.

Fly the airplane is # 1. The go-around is a precautionary option. Properly performed it is neither difficult or of any particular hazard. You don't need to tell the tower anything until they ask your intentions. A go-around should be made when there is a significant deviation from intentions or a requirement for radical maneuvering. A go-around is a sound controlled maneuver. Listen for the sound of full power, acceleration, Vy, and climb.

Forgetting to bring up flaps is the most common student fault. Aircraft are certified, when new, to be able to climb at 2-degrees in normal, utility, and aerobatic categories with full flaps. Just as old instructors have more trouble making the climb into an aircraft, so do old airplanes have trouble making the climb for which they were originally certificated.

The manner used for removal of flaps depends on the airspeed. The old FAA recommendation was to take 20 degrees off initially, get climb speed, and then take off the rest. This is still good unless the aircraft is below 60 kts. Below 60 kts the flaps should be 'milked' up by quick applications of the switch while being sure not to go past neutral. If you don't want to chance looking at the airspeed indicator, use the 'milking' method until the sound of the aircraft indicates climb speed. The nose should be level until climb speed is acquired. Any attempt to climb will result in loss of airspeed. In this very slow configuration, the sudden and complete removal of flaps can result in an immediate stall or sudden contact with the ground. Get the speed; then climb.

Raising flaps too quickly or too much can precipitate a stall. Be gentle. From 40-degree flaps, a slight removal reduces mostly drag. This is true up to about 20-degrees of flap. From 15-degrees to no-flaps you are losing mostly lift. Flap removal by measured stages reduces the change in control forces, change in attitude, and required pilot reaction. The second most common student fault in a go-around is failing to use the pre-landing checklist on the second approach.

Hold the nose on the horizon while bringing up the flaps with minimal delay. Since we should be at 60 kts we can bring up 20 degrees of flaps at once and immediately bring back the yoke to set and hold what we have learned to visualize as a proper attitude to hold altitude as the aircraft accelerates to 65. If we stay level this should occur quickly and we can bring up the rest of the flaps and establish a climb attitude. Trim for climb. It will probably be necessary for the instructor to re-establish the pre-go-around configuration several times. It is essential that the go-around procedure be smoothly performed in the correct sequence at the correct speeds. Once performed well at altitude the go-around is ready for use at ground level. Milk up at speeds below 60 knots. Flaps may be brought up without milking once climb speed is attained. Yoke is used to prevent any undesired sink. Trim as required.

There are several common faults typical to the go-around. Most problems occur when power is first added and before flaps are raised. The student's eyes should be focused outside the airplane on the nose attitude of the aircraft. Learn to locate the flap switch by feel. No trim is required. The aircraft must be kept level. The full application of power with flaps will tend to cause a rapid nose pitch up. P-factor will cause the nose to turn to the left so right rudder pressure must be used in anticipation. The nose must be held down or there will be a loss of airspeed. This will require locking the arm on the door and a full palm pressure forward. The pitch-up and left turning of the nose must be anticipated and corrected before it occurs. Apply throttle BEFORE carb heat. If you are having a problem you probably forgot to milk up the flaps.

For some reason many students think that the carburetor heat must go off before throttle application. It doesn't. The throttle should be applied smoothly first and then the carb heat taken off with the thumb to get full power. The position of the carb heat control was designed to be pushed in with the right thumb. A too rapid application of throttle can cause the engine to load up with excess fuel. This causes a delay in getting full power. Smooth throttle operation will give smooth engine operation and allow smoother application of rudder. It is surprising how often students seem to think that the hand must stay frozen on the throttle to keep it in. It doesn't. Keep the friction lock of the throttle snug. By holding the throttle you will fail to get the flaps up. The yoke pressure makes them think that something is wrong with the trim. There isn't. Once full power is applied the right hand goes immediately to the flap switch.

There is a go-around situation that can cause instinctive reactions to overcome training. This is when the time of the go-around is delayed until an obstacle gets so close that both power and instinctive raising the nose occurs due to perceived danger. The result is a nose high, low speed, prelude to an accident. In any go-around the nose must be held level during the use of full power. The climb speed must be attained and retained during removal of flaps. The climb will naturally result from the power, configuration, and airspeed. For this reason some go-around instruction should include this situation. As in many flying situations, instinctive reactions can bite you.

The student should be made to realize that all of the final spproach procedures are, when arranged in a given sequence, the landing process. For a landing the airspeed must be made to transition smoothly from cruise, to approach, to stall. There will be a sequence of turns, left or right, while descending. The trim and flaps must be smoothly coordinated in application to maintain the approach angle and speed. Power is smoothly changed from cruise to 1500 to off. The power off stall at moment of ground contact is the landing.

At some airports a go-around may not be possible due to geographical features. This one-way airport should never be attempted without good proficiency both in flying and judging aircraft performance. It is best to overfly at a safe altitude before making your approach. Density altitude performance limitations is a reason to carefully consider your options before using an airport where a go-around is a possibility.

The go-around is an exercise in good judgment. Scenarios can be because of traffic, turbulence, hazards, speed and approach problems. The earlier the decision the better. Procedures close to the ground are more critical in their need for correct procedure and performance. Largest single experience grouping of go-around accidents is pilots with 100 to 500 hours.

A go-around that is both close to the ground and at low initial power requires anticipatory forward yoke and rudder pressure to prevent radical pitch and heading changes. Hold near level flight until acceleration occurs. There is always a certain amount of ground shyness during a low-level go-around. The go-around sequence is power, pitch, and flaps. The power goes to full with appropriate simultaneous rudder. The pitch goes to level and flaps are raised incrementally until reaching Vy. Fly to the right side of the runway. Obey noise abatement procedures.

Delay close to the ground is always dangerous because the delay means an additional loss of altitude. Power application must be both positive and smooth so as to allow engine to adapt to the situation. The pilot must anticipate the need for using rudder and forward (locked) pitch to avoid pitch up and loss of airspeed. There are occasions where descending into ground effect may be beneficial since it increases effective engine power, propeller efficiency and reduced drag. Aircraft will accelerate to climb speed more quickly and allow quicker removal of flaps.

The use of ground effect is a variable depending on wing span and density altitude. The ground effect you get in winter will not be there in summer. Leaving ground effect too early can easily put the aircraft behind the power curve. This means that altitude must be sacrificed in order to get airspeed. It is far better to gain excess airspeed before you begin to climb out of ground effect. Just as you must learn to plan ahead when passing traffic with a low powered car, so must you learn to plan ahead when climbing from a low speed, low altitude situation.

Flap removal should be in stages with the size of stage much smaller the lower the airspeed and higher the aircraft. The flight region from full flaps to half flaps is where removal will reduce drag considerably more than it will reduce lift.

Go-Around Preparation
When you have been flying a while, you expect to land...every time. The go-around becomes unusual, abnormal, and unprepared for. When ATC calls a go-around you are usually high enough and fast enough to perform without any special anticipation. The lower and slower you get into the landing procedure the less likely will you be prepared for the go-around. Do not add additional trim in anticipation of making the flare attitude easier. Such additional trim will greatly increase the control pressures and likelihood of a go-around stall.

A crosswind landing increases the likelihood of a go-around because of the possibility of uncorrected drift. You don't want to land with side loads on the landing gear or off runway. The crosswind go-around requires the pilot to make a change in orientation. While the landing is made with a wing-low heading parallel to the runway, the go-around requires a wings-level crab heading at an angle to the runway.

The go-around and missed approach is best initiated before slowing to Vref since it reduces the acceleration time required for Vy. Go to climb power, using throttle before carburetor heat, clean up flaps/gear, maintain positive climb rate and runway heading. All of the factors in the prior paragraph are important in making the go-around determination. The pre-Vref speed, headwind component, and weight all affect the pilot's sight-line. The determination of the sight-line is the judgmental factor used in choice of the go around.

Go-Around and Flare
Even inside these C. G. limits your normal reaction time to a ballooned landing flare or a bounced landing may create sensations and flight attitudes that cause your reaction time of one second to make the situation worse. You are pushing or pulling on the yoke at the wrong time. The only correct procedure is to GO-AROUND. Apply full power, hold the aircraft level, milk up the flaps, stay level to obtain climb speed, climb out and make a new landing approach.

If you are behind the power curve when the go-around becomes necessary it is too late. Behind the power curve means that your angle of attack is so great that there is insufficient power to climb. Gaining speed requires a certain loss of altitude. With your AGL (above ground level) near zero, ground contact is assured. Get the power off so that a bounce will not make you airborne and behind the power curve at ever a higher altitude.

What Makes the Go-around A Problem:
--Pilot indecision that results in too much runway behind you and not enough in front.
--Pilot optimism in belief that he can salvage a poor approach to make a ut and make a new landing approach.

If you are behind the power curve when the go-around becomes necessary it is too late. Behind the power curve means that your angle of attack is so great that there is insufficient power to climb. Gaining speed requires a certain loss of altitude. With your AGL (above ground level) near zero, grougood landing.

Why Accidents Are Related to the To-around:
1. Failure to initiate at first indication of a problem.
2. Failure to use rudder to maintain directional control.
3. Failure to anticipate effects of power.
4. Incorrect use of flight controls, especially ailerons, flaps and rudder

Go-around Carburetor Heat (Instructor)
Because carburetor heat is taken off before taking off during touch-and-go's, many students think that the carburetor heat must go off before throttle application. It doesn't. For the go-around the throttle should be applied smoothly first and then the carb heat taken off with the thumb to get full power. The position of the carb heat control was selected so it could pushed in with the right thumb. A too rapid application of throttle can cause the engine to load up with excess fuel. This causes a delay in getting full power. Smooth throttle operation will give smooth engine operation and allow smoother application of rudder. It is surprising how often students seem to think that the hand must stay frozen on the throttle to keep it in. It doesn't. Keep the friction lock of the throttle snug. By holding the throttle you will fail to get the flaps up. The yoke pressure makes students think that something is wrong with the trim. There isn't. Once full power is applied the right hand goes immediately to the flap switch.

Making the Go-around Safe
Have the go-around procedure as part of your prelanding list. The "go-around" is one of the best safety procedures in flying. If you are not positioned for a safe landing, go-around. 150 annual go-around mistakes occur every year. Less than 20% are by student pilots. Student pilots do not have the high expectations of landing that many pilots develop in the 100 to 500 hour range. Caveat: The more experience you get the more you should practice go-arounds.

The phase of an aircraft in the takeoff/landing sequence most likely to cause a fatal accident is during the go-around. The ability of a pilot to make a timely decision is the significant issue. An unexpected tailwind presents the most difficult decision making situation. Pilots should not allow themselves to be victimized by either other pilots or ATC into making downwind takeoffs or landings. Effective risk management means that the pilot should know the limits of his piloting ability and those of his aircraft. There is a practical side to safety that requires the go-around to be considered the first and best option when a landing is in doubt.

The go-around requires the student to overcome many instinctive and false ideas. We are not trying to get away from the ground, yet. We are initially gaining airspeed and cleaning up the aircraft for climb. We want to go faster, not up. Established in the approach configuration of trim, flaps and power the aircraft is descending. By making a significant increase in power the nose wants to rise. This instinctively seems like a great idea but the cost in airspeed can be excessive to fatal. We must hold the nose level. Lock the elbow against the door panel to prevent the yoke and nose from erratic movement.

The student must be warned to anticipate with rudder and yoke the effect caused by a smooth but rapid power application. Every change in flap setting and airspeed will require a different amount of anticipation. Failure to anticipate will cause the aircraft to balloon, lose airspeed and make the go-around more difficult to perform. Watch the nose, keep it level. Listen for an increase in airspeed before looking at the indicator. At 60 kts the aircraft will be able to hold altitude while the flaps are raised. Below 60-kts the aircraft will probably sink if flaps are raised all at once. Climb at 65. A speed faster than 65 will not let you climb as well. (C-150)

Remember--The idea that just adding power to an airplane will make it fly slower is another example of a flying contradiction is not easily accepted or understood by students. In every other situation in life, adding power makes things go faster. This phenomenon is best demonstrated at altitude. Establish the airplane in trimmed low cruise of 70 kts. Add full power with a touch of rudder to hold heading. The nose will rise and the aircraft will slow. Do this again without the use of rudder to note the effect of P-factor.

Go-Around Simulations (Instructor)
We plan to make a series of left and right dual go-arounds at altitude and are now ready for the real thing. Once stabilized on 'final', the instructor, will point out a certain 'ground level' altitude at which to commence the go-around. The go-around needs to be well orchestrated to be correctly performed. It may be necessary for the instructor to re-establish the full flap descent at 60 kts to give the student another practice effort. No altitude should ever be lost below 'ground level'. Once established in climb and trimmed the crosswind turn is used to regain the original altitude for another practice pattern. I usually find it advisable to practice several right and left full patterns before proceeding to our destination airport.

On arrival, request the option but advise the tower that you will be doing a series of go-arounds. Plan to do a series of eight or more in both left and right patterns. Remember you must anticipate with rudder and yoke the effect caused by a smooth but rapid power application will have. Every change in flap setting and airspeed will require a different amount of anticipation. Failure to anticipate will cause the aircraft to balloon, lose airspeed and make the go-around more difficult to perform. Watch the nose, keep it level. Listen for an increase in airspeed before looking at the indicator. At 60-kts the aircraft will be able to hold altitude while the flaps are raised. Below 60 kts the aircraft will probably sink if flaps are raised all at once. Climb at 65. A speed faster than 65 will not let you climb as well. (C-150)

Begin by configuring your aircraft to land with 10-degrees or no flaps on final, at 60 kts go-around at 200'. The next go-around should be in a 20- degree flap configuration at 55-knots with the go-around at 100'. The next go-around should be with full flaps at 60-knots with the go-around at 50'. The next go-around should be with full flaps at 55-knots with the go-around at 25'. Changing the pattern direction begin the next go-around series in the flare portion of the approach. Begin with no flaps and proceed in gradual flap increments until the go-around is done with full flaps.

Once stabilized on the practice 'final', the instructor, will point out a certain 'ground level' altitude at which to commence the go-around. The go-around needs to be well orchestrated to be correctly performed. It may be necessary for the instructor to re-establish the full flap descent at 60-kts to give the student another practice effort. No altitude should ever be lost below 'ground level'. Once established in climb and trimmed the crosswind turn is used to regain the original altitude for another practice pattern.

Go-Around & Low Approach (Instructor)
We have made a series of left and right go-arounds at altitude and are now ready for the close to the ground real thing. The proximity of the runway and ground creates tensions that affect the student's ability to perform. By agreement, no landings will be made. Much of the psychological pressure is thereby removed if the student knows that NO landing are going to take place. The Instructor actively supervises and coaches the student as required for the first couple of patterns. Since we have agreed not to land, we will be doing go-arounds.

First at 200', then at 100', then at 50' and lastly in the flare. The distinction between the go-around procedure at above 60-kts and at below 60-kts is illustrated in the last instance. We will now proceed to do at least four identical low approaches in the opposite pattern before flying home. The errors common to the go-around should be allowed to occur so that they can be brought to the attention of the student.

The instinctive desire to add power abruptly and climb, especially on the lower go-arounds, should be anticipated by the instructor. Smooth throttle operation will give smooth engine operation and allow smoother application of rudder. Most control problems occur in the interval between power application and removal of flaps. The pitch up and left turning of the nose must be ANTICIPATED and corrected BEFORE it occurs. Putting more than one finger behind the yoke on a go-around is a 'probable cause' of over reaction and abrupt control movements.

The go-around procedure varies somewhat in every situation but there are two basic situations that require significantly different control pressures. If the go around is initiated at approach speed or higher the flaps can be safely brought up immediately after full power is applied with just a momentary pause at 20 degrees to check climb speed and performance.

If the go-around is initiated at less than approach speed the flaps must be 'milked' up while the plane is led in a level attitude and allowed to accelerate to climb speed. At climb speed the flaps are removed. The most common fault is for the student to freeze on the throttle and forget to bring up the flaps. The most dangerous fault is for the student to take off the flaps too quickly at too slow a speed. This causes the plane to sink and perhaps contact the ground. Student control inputs will be excessive and in reaction rather than anticipation. Raising the nose to stop the sink lowers the speed even more. The more standardized the procedure used in removing the flaps the better the student can anticipate the control pressures required. The low-speed go-around must be practiced until it can be done correctly and safely.

Heard about an instructor who would not teach go-arounds because they were considered dangerous. Like almost any area of flying, the improperly executed go-around can lead to loss of control and/or a stall. If the go-around does not adequately compensate for winds by using a crab angle for the heading the pilot may experience directional control problems. The wing low and opposite rudder is used on final to keep the nose straight with the runway. At the moment of go-around the aircraft is allowed to crab into the wind as required to keep the ground course over the runway regardless of the heading. The stall during the go-around is most likely to occur if the aircraft is not allowed to accelerate in level flight while slowly bringing up the flaps. At approach speeds a rapid removal of flaps will precipitate a stall.

Go Around Lesson (Instructor)
The most common 'emergency' is the go-around. Have the go-around procedure as part of your prelanding list. The "go-around" is one of the best safety procedures in flying. If you are not positioned for a safe landing, go-around. 150 annual go-around mistakes occur every year. Less than 20% are by student pilots. Student pilots do not have the high expectations of landing that many pilots develop in the 100 to 500 hour range. The more experience you get the more you should practice go-arounds.

The proximity of the runway and ground creates tensions that affect the student's ability to perform. By agreement, no landings will be made. Much of the psychological pressure is thereby removed if the student knows that NO landing are going to take place. The Instructor actively supervises and coaches the student as required for the first couple of patterns. The distinction between the go-around procedure at above 60-kts and at below 60-kts is demonstrated in the low-level situations.

The go-around requires the student to overcome many instinctive and false ideas. We are not trying to get away from the ground, yet. We are initially gaining airspeed and cleaning up the aircraft for climb. We want to go faster, not up. Established in the approach configuration of trim, flaps and power the aircraft is descending. By making a significant increase in power the nose wants to rise. This instinctively seems like a great idea but the cost in airspeed can be excessive to fatal. We must hold the nose level. Lock the elbow against the door panel to prevent the yoke and nose from erratic movement. The instinctive desire to add power abruptly and climb, especially on the lower go-arounds, should be anticipated by the instructor. Smooth throttle operation will give smooth engine operation and allow a smoother application of rudder.

Go-around Flaps (Instructor)
The manner used for removal of flaps depends on the airspeed. The old FAA recommendation was to take 20 degrees off initially, get climb speed, and then take off the rest. This is still good unless the aircraft is below 60 kts. Below 60 kts the flaps should be 'milked' up by quick applications of the switch while being sure not to go past neutral. The nose should be level until climb speed is acquired. Any attempt to climb will result in loss of airspeed. In this very slow configuration, the sudden and complete removal of flaps can result in an immediate stall or sudden contact with the ground. The stall during the go-around is most likely to occur if the aircraft is not allowed to accelerate in level flight while slowly bringing up the flaps. Get the speed; then climb.

Raising flaps too quickly or too much can precipitate a stall. Be gentle. From 40-degree flaps, a slight removal reduces mostly drag. This is true up to about 20-degrees of flap. From 15-degrees to no-flaps you are losing mostly lift. Flap removal by measured stages reduces the change in control forces, change in attitude, and required pilot reaction.

Forgetting to bring up flaps is the most common student fault. Aircraft are certified, when new, to be able to climb at 2-degrees in normal, utility, and aerobatic categories with full flaps. The second most common student fault in a go-around is failing to use the prelanding checklist on the second approach.

Go-Around Hazards (Instructor)
Have the go-around procedure as part of your prelanding list. The go-around is one of the best safety procedures in flying. If you are not positioned for a safe landing, go-around. 150 annual go-around mistakes occur every year. Less than 20% are by student pilots. Student pilots do not have the high expectations of landing that many pilots develop in the 100 to 500 hour range. The more experience you get the more you should practice go-arounds. Most problems occur when power is first added and before flaps are raised.

Heard about an instructor who would not teach go-arounds because they were considered dangerous. Like almost any area of flying, the improperly executed go-around can lead to loss of control and/or a stall. If the go-around does not adequately compensate for winds by using a crab angle for the heading the pilot may experience directional control problems. The wing low and opposite rudder is used on final to keep the nose straight with the runway. At the moment of go-around the aircraft is allowed to crab into the wind as required to keep the ground course over the runway regardless of the heading. Most control problems occur in the interval between power application and removal of flaps. The pitch up and left turning of the nose must be ANTICIPATED and corrected BEFORE it occurs. Putting more than one finger behind the yoke on a go-around is a 'probable cause' of over reaction and abrupt control movements.

Your normal reaction time to a ballooned landing flare or a bounced landing may create sensations and flight attitudes that cause problems. Your reaction time of one second is likely to make the situation worse. You are pushing or pulling on the yoke at the wrong time. The only correct procedure is to GO-AROUND. Apply full power, hold the aircraft level, milk up the flaps, stay level to obtain climb speed, climb out and make a new landing approach.

There is a go-around situation that can cause instinctive reactions to overcome training. This is when the time of the go-around is delayed until an obstacle gets so close that both power and instinctive raising the nose occurs due to perceived danger. The result is a nose high, low speed, prelude to an accident. In any go-around the nose must be held level during the application of full power. The climb speed must be attained and retained during removal of flaps. The climb will naturally result from the power, configuration, and airspeed. For this reason some go-around instruction should include this situation. As in many flying situations, instinctive reactions can bite you.

When you have been flying a while, you expect to land...every time. The go-around becomes unusual, abnormal, and unprepared for. When ATC calls a go-around you are usually high enough and fast enough to perform without any special anticipation. The lower and slower you get into the landing procedure the less likely will you be prepared for the go-around. Do not add additional trim in anticipation of making the flare attitude easier. Such additional trim will greatly increase the control pressures and likelihood of a go-around stall.

Special Circumstances (Instructor)
At some airports a go-around may not be possible due to geographical features. This one-way airport should never be attempted without good proficiency both in flying and judging aircraft performance. It is best to overfly at a safe altitude before making your approach.

There is a go-around situation called 'getting-behind-the-power-curve' that arises when the go-around is delayed. Behind the power curve means that your angle of attack is so great that there is insufficient power to climb. Gaining speed requires a certain loss of altitude. Instinctive reactions overcome training until an obstacle gets so close that both power and instinctive raising the nose occurs due to perceived danger. The result is a nose high, low speed, prelude to an accident. A delayed go-around that adds incremental power changes can create this situation where there is no more power available and altitude must be surrendered. If the altitude is not available a go-around is not possible. Get the power off so that a crash/bounce will not make you airborne and behind the curve at ever a higher altitude.

Go-Around Practice
Even inside C. G. limits your normal reaction time to a ballooned landing flare or a bounced landing may create sensations and flight attitudes that cause your reaction time of one second to make the situation worse. You are pushing or pulling on the yoke at the wrong time. The only correct procedure is to GO-AROUND. Apply full power, hold the aircraft level, milk up the flaps, stay level to obtain climb speed, climb out and make a new landing approach.

Hold the nose on the horizon while bringing up the flaps with minimal delay. Since we should be at 60-kts (C-150) we can bring up 20-degrees of flaps at once and immediately bring back the yoke to set and hold what we have learned to visualize as a proper attitude to hold altitude as the aircraft accelerates to 65. If we stay level this should occur quickly and we can bring up the rest of the flaps and establish a climb attitude. Trim for climb. It will probably be necessary for the instructor to re-establish the pre-go-around configuration several times. It is essential that the go-around procedure be smoothly performed in the correct sequence at the correct speeds. Once performed well at altitude the go-around is ready for use at ground level. Milk up at speeds below 60 knots. Flaps may be brought up without milking once climb speed is attained. Yoke is used to prevent any undesired sink. Trim as required. Keep track of your trim settings.

All Phases of the Go-Around
The go-around should be a smooth transition from a landing situation into takeoff configuration. Stop landing, start climbing. The go-around usually is initiated for instructional purposes, traffic, lack of aircraft control, weather or surface conditions. The go-around is essentially a takeoff with full flaps. You must have practiced at altitude so that you know ahead of time which pressures to anticipate as flaps are retracted and you maintain level flight. Flap retraction must be carefully controlled because most training aircraft have little excess power.

The earlier you go-around the better. This is an action deemed necessary to correct control, approach, flare, or rollout problems. Altitude allows some trade off for airspeed. The lower the go-around the more difficult it may seem but this is not necessarily so. You have less distance to fall in a stall the closer to the ground you are. This is because flight within ground effect requires less power for a given performance. The aircraft can fly close to the ground even with full flaps. In ground effect the partial removal of flaps is less likely to cause a stall. There is more excess power in ground effect so that more acceleration can occur as the flaps are removed.

The successful go-around is predicated on the pilot's ability to understand the required planning, set aircraft attitude, clean up the configuration, and the use of power. The greatest enemy of planning is any form of delay, procrastination or hesitation. The delayed go-around greatly increases the plucker factor. The proximity to the ground should not do this but it does. Actually, the ground proximity should rightly be considered an asset. Ground effect, properly used, greatly enhances the ability of the aircraft to avoid the ground, accelerate and climb. Most often go-around accidents are the result of premature and unintentional climbs at low airspeeds. Airspeed is money in the bank. Get the airspeed up with full SMOOTH power, a level attitude or slight dive held against the power and flap effort to raise the nose, and get off the flaps slowly until reaching climb speed. The best go-around is a precision control maneuver when done properly. Every move is done in anticipation of what you know will come next. If you don't know, learn. A pilot's reliability factor can well be measured by the smoothness with which a go-around is performed.

Reasons the Go-around Is Difficult:
--Pilot indecision which results in loss of runway and departure clearance.
--Pilot fixation on salvaging a poor approach.

A safe go-around can be accomplished at any altitude if the initial effort is just to stay at altitude while power and configuration is adjusted to allow a climb. The most common fault is attempting to climb before the aircraft is capable of climbing. Have a go-around plan and fly the plan.

Fly the airplane is # 1. The go-around is not an emergency, it is a standard procedure even if the FAA says it is. The go-around is a precautionary option. Properly performed it is neither difficult or of any particular hazard. You don't need to tell the tower anything until they ask your intentions. A go-around should be made when there is a significant deviation from intentions or a requirement for radical maneuvering. A go-around is a sound controlled maneuver. Listen for the sound of full power, acceleration, vy, and climb.

Keep your eyes outside during the go-around. Keep controls smoothly coordinated and a heading in a pre-selected direction. Apply full power smoothly, the remove carburetor heat, anticipate torque, P-factor, and slipstream with right rudder. Keep the aircraft level with a locked elbow and remove the flaps judiciously with reference to your airspeed and altitude. There is no need to hurry. Accelerate to 65 Kts (C-150), trim for climb and set the pitch attitude that will maintain a Vy climb. Now, you can look at your instruments.

Raising flaps too quickly or too much can precipitate a stall. Be gentle. From 40-degree flaps, a slight removal reduces mostly drag. This is true up to about 20-degrees of flap. From 15-degrees to no-flaps you are losing mostly lift. Flap removal by measured stages reduces the change in control forces, change in attitude, and required pilot reaction. The second most common student fault in a go-around is failing to use the pre-landing checklist on the second approach.

Forgetting to bring up flaps is the most common student fault. Aircraft are certified, when new, to be able to climb at 2-degrees in normal, utility, and aerobatic categories with full flaps. Just as old instructors have more trouble making the climb into an aircraft, so do old airplanes have trouble making the climbs for which they were originally certificated. The stall during the go-around is most likely to occur if the aircraft is not allowed to accelerate in level flight while slowly bringing up the flaps.

As in many flying situations, instinctive reactions can bite you. Your normal reaction time to a ballooned landing flare or a bounced landing may create sensations and flight attitudes that cause problems. Your reaction time of one second to make the situation worse. You are pushing or pulling on the yoke at the wrong time. The only correct procedure is to GO-AROUND. Apply full power, hold the aircraft level, milk up the flaps, stay level to obtain climb speed, climb out and make a new landing approach.

There is a go-around situation called 'getting-behind-the-power-curve' that arises when the go-around is delayed. Behind the power curve means that your angle of attack is so great that there is insufficient power to climb. Gaining speed requires a certain loss of altitude. instinctive reactions overcome training until an obstacle gets so close that both power and instinctive raising the nose occurs due to perceived danger. The result is a nose high, low speed, prelude to an accident. A delayed go-around that adds incremental power changes can create this situation where there is no more power available and altitude must be surrendered. If the altitude is not available a go-around is not possible. Get the power off so that a crash/bounce will not make you airborne and behind the curve at ever a higher altitude.

When you have been flying a while, you expect to land...every time. The go-around becomes unusual, abnormal, and unprepared for. When ATC calls a go-around you are usually high enough and fast enough to perform without any special anticipation. The lower and slower you get into the landing procedure the less likely will you be prepared for the go-around. Do not add additional trim in anticipation of making the flare attitude easier. Such additional trim will greatly increase the control pressures and likelihood of a go-around stall.

A crosswind landing increases the likelihood of a go-around. Because of the possibility of uncorrected drift. You don't want to land with side loads on the landing gear or off runway. The crosswind go-around requires the pilot to make a change in orientation. While the landing is made with a wing-low heading parallel to the runway, the go-around requires a wings-level crab heading at an angle to the runway.

At some airports a go-around may not be possible due to geographical features. This one-way airport should never be attempted without good proficiency both in flying and judging aircraft performance. It is best to overfly at a safe altitude before making your approach.

Planning the Go-around Lesson
The most common 'emergency' is the go-around. Have the go-around procedure as part of your prelanding list. The "go-around" is one of the best safety procedures in flying. If you are not positioned for a safe landing, go-around. 150 annual go-around mistakes occur every year. Less than 20% are by student pilots. Student pilots do not have the high expectations of landing that many pilots develop in the 100 to 500 hour range. The more experience you get the more you should practice go-arounds.

Request the option but advise the tower that you will be doing a series of go-arounds. Plan to do a series of eight or more. Remember you must anticipate with rudder and yoke the effect caused by a smooth but rapid power application will have. Every change in flap setting and airspeed will require a different amount of anticipation. Failure to anticipate will cause the aircraft to balloon, lose airspeed and make the go-around more difficult to perform. Watch the nose, keep it level. Listen for an increase in airspeed before looking at the indicator. At 60 kts the aircraft will be able to hold altitude while the flaps are raised. Below 60 kts the aircraft will probably sink if flaps are raised all at once. Climb at 65. A speed faster than 65 will not let you climb as well. (C-150)

Begin by configuring your aircraft to land with 10 degrees or no flaps on final, at 60 kts go-around at 200'. The next go-around should be in a 20 degree flap configuration at 55 knots with the go-around at 100'. The next go-around should be with full flaps at 60 knots with the go-around at 50'. The next go-around should be with full flaps at 55 knots with the go-around at 25'. Changing the pattern direction begin the next go-around series in the flare portion of the approach. Begin with no flaps and proceed in gradual flap increments until the go-around is done with full flaps.

Go-Around Instruction
Once stabilized on final, the instructor, will point out a certain 'ground level' altitude at which to commence the go-around. The go-around needs to be well orchestrated to be correctly performed. It may be necessary for the instructor to re-establish the full flap descent at 60 kts to give the student another practice effort. No altitude should ever be lost below 'ground level'. Once established in climb and trimmed the crosswind turn is used to regain the original altitude for another practice pattern. I usually find it advisable to practice both two right and two left full patterns before proceeding to our destination airport.

The go-around requires the student to overcome many instinctive and false ideas. We are not trying to get away from the ground, yet. We are initially gaining airspeed and cleaning up the aircraft for climb. We want to go faster, not up. Established in approach configuration of trim, flaps and power the aircraft is descending. Any time we make a significant increase in power the nose wants to rise. This seems like a great idea but the cost in airspeed can be excessive to fatal. We must hold the nose level. Lock the elbow against the door panel to prevent the yoke and nose from erratic movement.

Remember--The idea that just adding power to an airplane will make it fly slower is another example of a flying contradiction. In every other situation in life, adding power makes things go faster. This phenomenon is best demonstrated at altitude. Establish the airplane in trimmed low cruise of 70 kts. Add full power with a touch of rudder to hold heading. The nose will rise and the aircraft will slow. Do this again without the use of rudder to note the effect of P-factor.

There is a problem called 'getting-behind-the-power-curve' that arises when the go-around is delayed. A delayed go-around that adds incremental power changes can create this situation were there is no more power available and altitude must be surrendered. If the altitude is not available a go-around is not possible. See material on decelerated approach. When a landing is not going well, go-around. If the aircraft is doing something you don't know how to cope with, go-around.

Avoiding the Hazards of the Go-Around
Reasons the go-around is considered difficult:
--Pilot indecision which results in too much runway behind you and not enough in front.
--Pilot optimism in belief that he can salvage a poor approach to make a good landing.

There are several common faults typical to the go-around. Most problems occur when power is first added and before flaps are raised.

Remember--The idea that just adding power to an airplane will make it fly slower is another example of a flying contradiction. In every other situation in life, adding power makes things go faster. This phenomenon is best demonstrated at altitude. Establish the airplane in trimmed low cruise of 70 kts. Add full power with a touch of rudder to hold heading. The nose will rise and the aircraft will slow. Do this again without the use of rudder to note the effect of P-factor. Do it again with flaps and slower airspeeds.

Most control problems occur in the interval between power application and removal of flaps. The pitch up and left turning of the nose must be ANTICIPATED and corrected BEFORE it occurs. Putting more than one finger behind the yoke on a go-around is a 'probable cause' of over reaction and abrupt control movements.

For some reason many students think that the carburetor heat must go off before throttle application. It doesn't. The throttle should be applied smoothly first and then the carb heat taken off with the thumb to get full power. The position of the carb heat control was designed to be pushed in with the right thumb. A too rapid application of throttle can cause the engine to load up with excess fuel. This causes a delay in getting full power. Smooth throttle operation will give smooth engine operation and allow smoother application of rudder. It is surprising how often students seem to think that the hand must stay frozen on the throttle to keep it in. It doesn't. Keep the friction lock of the throttle snug. By holding the throttle you will fail to get the flaps up. The yoke pressure makes them think that something is wrong with the trim. There isn't. Once full power is applied the right hand goes immediately to the flap switch.

Any time an aircraft is not doing what it is supposed to do where it is supposed to do it during an approach, go-around. Saving a landing is the lowest form of ego trip a pilot should ever take. First apply full power, hold a level altitude, clean up the plane (In ground effect if you can) and climb using Vy. Finally trim. The go-around is not very intuitive. The pilot must overcome and counter many concerns and fears. Proximity to the ground is the 'biggie'. However, being close to the ground is the safest place to be. Performance will be better, you won't fall as far, and you get to see where you are. Controlled excess speed can get you over an obstacle if properly utilized.

Training For the Unexpected Go-around
Before my students learn landings we do an entire series of go-arounds. My intention in doing this is to counter the lack of go-arounds that will occur later in training. To be followed later when as a pilot the go-around becomes a rare occurrence. For technical/regulatory reasons, the go-around is called a 'balked landing' in the POH. This has something to do with the ability to climb under landing configuration and is the reason Cessnas now only have 30-degrees of flap extension.

The unplanned go-around is most difficult when the aircraft is unfamiliar and proficiency is lacking. Where the vast majority of previous go-arounds were performed in trainers, now we have a complex aircraft with years since the last planned go-around and we are faced with an honest-to-goodness, have-to-do-it-in-a-hurry go-around. It will not go well.

The go-around procedure is generally generic. Instinctive reactions will be counter productive. In some aircraft retraction of the gear is not recommended. Flap removal will differ with aircraft type or model. You must be trained for the go-around aircraft specific but the generic way will work in most situations.

Power, full power is always applied first, under the assumption that the pre-landing procedure advanced the propeller control. If not, advance the propeller and full power in rapid succession. A specified sequence then follows to go from landing to climb. The sooner the go-around is initiated the better. It can be initiated even on the downwind leg. There is no need for radio communications that you are going around.

Although others would suggest that climb commence immediately after power application. Instead, I would recommend that forward yoke pressure be maintained for level flight. Flaps should then be removed in stages until reaching at least Vx and preferably Vy before relaxing yoke pressure and allowing a climb to occur. Holding level for this short period of time allows you to see the terrain and perhaps slide to the right side of the runway. Clean up the flaps and gear as conditions allow, then climb.

The worse thing that can happen is a delayed response to the necessity of a go-around that is then followed by a hurried and inappropriate procedure. Common errors consist of initiating a climb attitude before the aircraft is properly configured, retracting too much of the flaps too soon or before any acceleration has been achieved, and the worst is failure to apply full power. You must be prepared to brace your arm and hand for the pitch up that occurs with the application of full power. This may be difficult if you have over trimmed in anticipation of using the trim to assist in the touchdown flare.

Go Around Mantra
One mantra for a missed approach or go-around is:
Power up
Pitch up (level)
Going up
Clean up

I.e. add power, raise the nose, confirm that you have positive rate of climb established, and then retract gear and flaps. No reason why the same mantra couldn't be used for a VFR go-around. Learning this a as a go-around procedure will help in making the transition to the instrument missed easier.

When to Make a Go Around  (Opinion)
About that "jammed the throttle in" phrasing; I'm sure you already know this, but just in case; NEVER jam in a  throttle!! Always use a gentle progressive hand on a throttle, ESPECIALLY!!!!! on a go around. As for when
to initiate a go around; always be prepared to initiate a go around from ANY position on the approach; during
the flare to a landing attitude, and even after touchdown if it's necessary and space is available.
There are only three limiting factors for determining a go around;
1. The judgment that it's necessary
2. The room to accomplish it safely.
3. The smarts to complete number 1 at a point that makes number 2 a given!!
Dudley Henriques

Three Problem Areas
I am working with two pre-solo students who got my attention this past week.

In the first instance student ballooned in his flare and then pulled the power all the way off.  In the second instance while doing crosswind landings of 40-degrees at 14kts, student tried to steer with yoke rather than keeping nose straight with rudder. I called for a go-around and the student immediately removed partial flaps without adding power.

This is somewhat related to the student who landed short in a previous thread. I survived both occasions and thought it might be helpful to tell how I 'thought' I had trained them to perform.

My first lesson in landings consists of left and right go-arounds at successively lower altitudes from 100' to the ground. In the process I try to set up occasions where a student learns about ground effect and the benefits of airspeed in the use of ground effect. I also use climb-outs as an opportune time to do Dutch-rolls.

That said, over time with other aspect of pre-solo these students do not get opportunities to review the go-around procedure as the #1 best option of a blown approach. I do not teach how to salvage a blown approach although in both of the foregoing cases it was necessary for me to do so. I want my student and pilots to look at the go-around as the best choice when things go bad.

This also applies to the landing approach that is too low. The error in this case leading to the landing short of the runway occurs when the student tries to correct being low by adding bits of power. Do it often enough and you are behind the power curve and unable to lower the nose without crashing.

When every I see we are low anywhere on final, I bring it to the student's attention by asking a question. When he says we are a bit low, I say the solution is to add full power while holding the same approach speed with a locked elbow on the side. Do this for a few seconds and then reduce power to your approach setting.

This is in effect a modified go-around. The addition of full power raises the nose for all three cases will try to raise the nose, slow the aircraft and swing the nose to the left unless accompanied by right rudder to keep the nose straight. Flaps in a go-around from a low airspeed should be milked-up while gaining speed in level flight until flaps can be removed at climb speed.

The balloon is likewise resolved by a go-around where the nose is held straight and level with yoke and rudder while flaps, if any are milked-up. Do not attempt to climb until reaching climb speed and removing flaps. Take full advantage of ground effect by staying within half a wingspan of the runway or ground.

All three of these situations can be practiced at altitude and then applied during approaches, flare, and go-arounds. A review of these skills is always warranted. What I learned from these situations is be aware that even the best student can get an instructors attention and teach the dangers of complacency.
Gene Whitt

Win One for the Gipper
Y'All,
One of my 'pre-solo critical landing situation students" above did it all right
yesterday one time.

He is from India and came to me with over 20 hours of instruction from a 'friend'. Needless to say there was a great deal to unlearn.

Would you believe, he never used the rudder. Had never done a Dutch roll, had great difficulty knowing where he was at any time. Airspeed was a variable at any time up to 20 knots. His basic landing technique was to fly a widely variable pattern size and altitude and aim at the end of the runway regardless of airspeed. He would land by flying the aircraft into the ground.

Yesterday he did one out of ten the way I have been teaching him. He held the nose wheel off the ground on takeoff and let the plane fly off the ground. He lowered the nose slightly and accelerated to climb speed. (The Airspeed indicator was covered by a Post-it so I could see but he couldn't unless he moved the Post-it. He hit and held pattern altitude due to perfect pattern climbing turns on airspeed and direction. He did his pre-landing before reaching the numbers, got and responded to his clearance while reducing power to 1500 rpm, He trimmed for 60 knots while holding heading and altitude. (A local noise abatement requirement) made his addition of flaps and change of trim three times while holding 60kts within three knots all the way to the runway.

Two previous landings I made him take his hands off the throttle throughout the landing and flare. I made him keep raising the nose to keep the far end of the runway. I pulled the power at touchdown. This time I told him to make all his power reductions no more than 200rpm at a time. By the time he touched down the nose was so high that the plane landed like a feather.. A real winner. I called it a day but he wanted to go on. Nope, now
the next one will be easier. He knows it is possible, and until this landing he lacked the required FAITH it took to make it happen.

Interestingly, during the post flight discussion, he attributed the landing to the fact that he was able to fly the speeds from takeoff to flare correctly. There is something to the idea that a good approach makes a good landing.
Gene

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